A key challenge for Latin America and the Caribbean is formalization, considering that half of the region’s workforce – around 130 million people – find themselves in the informal economy, often earning less than the minimum wage and without access to social protection. Through its Regional Programme for the Promotion of Formalization in Latin America and the Caribbean (FORLAC), the ILO has developed several initiatives that have led to legislative and policy changes in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Social actors across the region have also been active on this front. In 2015, for example, the Jamaica Employer’s Federation, with ILO support, adopted a gender-sensitive policy on the transition to formality – with guidance to support its members towards business formalization.
This joint annex presents progress on the implementation of the common chapter of the Strategic Plans, 2018-2021, of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), in response to a request by the Executive Boards of the four agencies for “details on the implementation of the common chapter in [their] annual reporting and, when applicable and as appropriate, at the joint meeting of the Executive Boards”. The approach of working together is also measured annually by indicators from the 2016 quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system (QCPR) contained in the QCPR annexes attached to the respective annual report of each agency.
The core mission inspiring the work of the United Nations region wide is to eliminate hunger and overcome the current levels of poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. To this end, several agencies have shared challenges and carried out similar activities to respond to the needs of countries and their people.
Particularly, FAO, IFAD and WFP have been engaged – in many occasions and in various sectors – in actions driven by the common goal of eradicating hunger and malnutrition while promoting sustainable agriculture and rural transformation, as they offer their specific capacities as agricultural knowledge organization, investment fund for rural areas, and development and humanitarian assistance programmes.
Challenging the global North’s dominance in the literature, this publication presents alternative approaches as well as creative responses to the challenges facing labour in the global South, in countries such as Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, South Africa and Uruguay. The volume devotes particular attention to areas often neglected by organized labour: the relationship between ecology, climate change and jobs; unionising service work; the dynamics of trade union−political party alliances; gender; and new forms of solidarity. It brings together a group of distinguished labour scholars and practitioners who make an important advance with their rich empirical case studies.
This paper explores the opportunities that economic diversification offers to foster structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa while absorbing the growing youth labour force and providing them with the requisite skills.
Building on a description and assessment of the contributions of different economic traditions (neoclassical, structural, institutional and evolutionary) to the analysis of policies in support of structural transformation and the generation of productive jobs, this book argues that industrial policy goes beyond targeting preferred economic activities, sectors and technologies. It also includes the challenge of accelerating learning and the creation of productive capabilities. This perspective encourages a broad and integrated approach to industrial policy. Only a coherent set of investment, trade, technology, education and training policies supported by macroeconomic, financial and labour market policies can adequately respond to the myriad challenges of learning and structural transformation faced by countries aiming at achieving development objectives. The book contains analyses of national and sectoral experiences in Costa Rica, the Republic of Korea, India, Brazil, China, South Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and the United States. Practical lessons and fundamental principles for industrial policy design and implementation are distilled from the country case studies. Given the fact that many countries today engage in industrial policy, this collection of contributions on theory and practice can be helpful to policy-makers and practitioners in making industrial policy work for growth, jobs and development.
Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved significant economic, labour market and social progress in recent decades. However, progress has begun to slow on a number of fronts that will challenge the ability of policy-makers to sustain these gains. In this context, active labour market policies (ALMPs) can play a central role by improving workers’ employability, contributing—directly or indirectly—to productive employment creation. A number of Latin American countries have embraced this policy shift. This report, part of the Studies on Growth with Equity series, examines the effectiveness of ALMPs implemented in Latin America, notably policies carried out in Argentina, Colombia and Peru. In particular: Chapter 1 presents the main trends of labour market and social indicators in LAC; Chapter 2 reviews the different concepts relevant to understanding ALMPs in a non-OECD country context and presents the results of a unique compendium of labour market policies implemented in selected LAC countries since the 1990s; Chapter 3 reviews both qualitatively and through a meta-analysis the empirical economic literature on impact evaluation of ALMPs, particularly in LAC countries; Chapter 4 presents results of three impact evaluations carried out for the purpose of this report and discusses the main policy lessons on how to leverage these policies to sustain further labour market and social progress.
This report shows that decent work is paramount in the fight to reduce poverty. One key finding is that poverty has tended to decline in many emerging and developing countries, whereas it has tended to increase in the majority of advanced economies, including in terms of working poverty. The report also examines the role that policy can play, documenting country initiatives focused on job-centred economic policies, employment programmes, enterprise development, social protection and social dialogue. Finally, the report discusses the role of international labour standards in reducing poverty and inequality.
Social protection policies play a critical role in realizing the human right to social security for all, reducing poverty and inequality, and promoting inclusive growth – by boosting human capital and productivity, and by supporting domestic demand and structural transformation of national economies. This ILO flagship report provides a global overview of the organization of social protection systems, their coverage and benefits, as well as public expenditures on social protection.
The report follows a life-cycle approach, starting with social protection for children, followed by schemes for women and men in working age, and closing with pensions and other support for older persons. It also assesses progress towards universal coverage in health. The report further analyses trends and recent policies, such as the negative impacts of fiscal consolidation and adjustment measures, and urgently calls to expand social protection for crisis recovery, inclusive development and social justice.
Through an examination of labour market trends, a series of scenario exercises, and econometric analysis, we analyse four prominent hypotheses of the root causes of declining female participation. The findings in this paper indicate that a number of factors were responsible for the recent sharp decline in estimated labour force participation rates among working-age women. Some factors, such as increased attendance in education and higher household income levels, are no doubt a positive reflection of rapid economic development. Additionally, we find evidence that changes in measurement methodology across survey rounds is likely to have contributed to the estimated decline in female participation, due to the difficulty of differentiating between domestic duties and contributing family work. However, the key long-run issue is the lack of employment opportunities for India’s women, owing to factors such as occupational segregation.
Inequality and labour informality are still distinctive characteristics of Latin America. However, most of the countries have succeeded in reversing the upward trends in both informality and inequality in the 1990s. These positive dynamics have been noteworthy in Argentina and Brazil. This paper analyses the processes of labour formalization in these countries and its interrelation with the evolution of income inequality over the 2000s. It contributes to two current debates. The first one refers to the role of labour market flexibilization in employment formalization. The second one is related to the reduction of income inequality. Most of the literature places emphasis on the evolution of the returns to education. This paper complements this approach by analysing the contribution of formalization to the reduction of inequality in these countries.
This report presents the findings of a knowledge assessment on urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) for the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania that was conducted in 2012. It examines the state of UPA in the city through the lens of intensifying urban pressures and increasing climate risks with the objective of identifying how these and other drivers potentially interact to affect the long-term sustainability of UPA, and what response options are needed to address existing and emerging challenges.
This report presents the findings of a knowledge assessment on urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) for the city of Ibadan, Nigeria that was conducted in 2012. It examines the state of UPA in the city through the lens of intensifying urban pressures and increasing climate risks with the objective of identifying how these and other drivers potentially interact to affect the long-term sustainability of UPA, and what response options are needed to address existing and emerging challenges.
This report presents the findings of a knowledge assessment on urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) for the city of Dakar, Senegal, that was conducted in 2012. It examines the state of UPA in the city through the lens of intensifying urban pressures and increasing climate risks with the objective of identifying how these and other drivers potentially interact to affect the long-term sustainability of UPA, and what response options are needed to address existing and emerging challenges.
This report presents the findings of a knowledge assessment on urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) for the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia that was conducted in 2012. It examines the state of UPA in the city through the lens of intensifying urban pressures and increasing climate risks with the objective of identifying how these and other drivers potentially interact to affect the long-term sustainability of UPA, and what response options are needed to address existing and emerging challenges.
The inclusion of green policy objectives in Barbados can be traced to the National Strategic Plan (2006-2025) and the Budget Speech of 2007. The process was given further impetus in 2009 when the then Prime Minister laid down the challenge of committing Barbados to become the “most environmentally advanced green country in Latin America and the Caribbean”. It was against this backdrop that the government engaged the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the establishment of a partnership to support the country’s transformation.
This study was undertaken as part of UNEP efforts of promoting forests as a significant green economy asset for Kenya. Forests should be taken into account when calculating the national accounts because the global rush for land and the increasing demand for agricultural products and urban infrastructure continue to intensify the pressure on tropical and coastal forests. The fact that forests provide goods and services which currently have no valued assigned to in economic markets exacerbates the deforestation and land conversion.
Three out of four of the jobs worldwide are water-dependent. In fact, water shortages and lack of access may limit economic growth in the years to come, according to the 2016 United Nations World Water Development Report: water and jobs, which was launched on 22 March, World Water Day, in Geneva. From its collection, through various uses, to its ultimate return to the natural environment, water is a key factor in the development of job opportunities either directly related to its management (supply, infrastructure, waste water treatment, etc.) or in economic sectors that are heavily water-dependent such as agriculture, fishing, power, industry and health. Furthermore, good access to drinking water and sanitation promotes an educated and healthy workforce, which constitutes an essential factor for sustained economic growth. In its analysis of the economic impact of access to water, the report cites numerous studies that show a positive correlation between investments in the water sector and economic growth. It also highlights the key role of water in the transition to a green economy.
This UN-Water Analytical Brief analyses the central role of water and sanitation to describe the links and interdependencies between the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 6 on water and sanitation and those of other Goals. It aims to stimulate United Nations Member States’ consideration of the water-related linkages within the Goals to facilitate an integrated approach to implementation. The Brief highlights the importance of mainstreaming water and sanitation in the policies and plans of other sectors, and how the management of interlinkages supports the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The world is facing a water quality challenge. Serious and increasing pollution of fresh water in both developing and developed countries poses a growing risk to public health, food security, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Pollution is strongly linked to economic development – with population growth and the expansion of agriculture, industry and energy production all in turn producing wastewater, much of which goes into surface and groundwater bodies uncontrolled or untreated. Despite recent preliminary assessments of the current worldwide water quality situation, the magnitude of the challenge is still unknown. Better information is required on where the issues lie and what is needed to effectively and efficiently take action to protect and improve water quality.
This Analytical Brief provides information about past assessments, outlines the challenge but also provides a plan for a world water quality assessment, which, if undertaken, would provide decision makers with the information they need to address this challenge. The Analytical Brief also explores the strong linkages between water quality and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG 6, “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all,” includes a specific target (6.3) dedicated to water quality. Central questions include: ‘how can the water quality target be achieved?’; ‘How will worsening water pollution affect SDGs for health, food security, and biodiversity, among others?’; Or, conversely, ‘how can actions to protect and enhance water quality help meet other SDGs?’.
The majority of the urban poor in Nairobi, including asylum seekers and refugees, find employment and self-employment opportunities in the highly competitive informal sector. Poor regulation, poor physical infrastructure and limited access to institutionalized business support services, limit the viability of the informal sector. Those without specialized skills or capital to start a business earn daily wages as casual labourers or as low-level employees. For asylum seekers and refugees the odds are worse, encumbered by a lengthy asylum seeking process, limited engagement with local administrative authorities which deprives them of critical protection and support, and a business community hesitant to engage them as a potential market. Without ownership of fixed assets those seeking to start or grow a business fail to meet the collateral requirements to access business loans. The March 2012 livelihoods baseline indicates that food alone comprises between 45 percent and 55 percent of monthly costs for the very poor. After spending on food and housing, very little remains for other essentials. Additional expenditure on limited health care, hygiene, energy and water deplete the modest monthly wage. UNHCR and the urban refugee’s livelihoods working group are implementing livelihoods projects targeting refugees and Kenyans. With limited funding and experience the UNHCR chaired urban refugee’s livelihoods working group is implementing a range of livelihood support projects. To improve the effectiveness of current livelihoods programming resources are required to build partner technical capacity in designing, implementing, and monitoring and evaluating interventions, institutionalizing the use of best practices and models that are proven to work, and scaling up to reach more beneficiaries.
The purpose of these Operational Guidelines is to provide practical guidance and advice to field staff and partners on: 1) UNHCR’s livelihood approach; 2) Key elements of the livelihood programming cycle, and partnership options; 3) The range of livelihood interventions relevant to UNHCR operations. These Operational Guidelines are aimed primarily at UNHCR Field Operations, starting with multi-functional teams (MFT) that include senior managers, Protection, Programme, Community Services, Field and Livelihood Officers, where applicable, as well as government counterparts, operational and implementing partners (IP), and donors. Representatives and senior managers in field operations, regional representations and decision-makers in headquarters are also addressed (see Chapter 1). Staff, partners, and consultants are encouraged to use this document as a reference tool in the process of planning and implementing a comprehensive livelihood strategy. The guidelines also seek to inform UNHCR’s traditional and potential partners about livelihood issues in regard to refugees and the organization’s role in and approach to livelihood programming. New partners may include micro-finance institutions, the private sector, foundations and academic institutions.
This publication is intended to help fill some of the more pressing accountability gaps that impede the realization of global and national development goals. We approach this challenge from the perspective of human rights, as a universal normative and legally binding framework embodying the minimum requirements of a dignified life, encapsulating universal values that a post-2015 agreement should strive to prioritize and protect as well as essential features of a road map to take us there.
Dalberg prepared this report for the Office of the Vice President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, outlining a strategic framework and implementation plan to provide a foundation for long-term transformation of the Nigerian economy.