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Social protection in an electorally competitive environment (1): The politics of Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN) in Tanzania

Social protection has become a more important part of social service delivery in Tanzania over the last couple of decades. This paper analyses the politics behind the making and implementation of the Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN), a cash transfer scheme that became part of a broader, existing scheme aimed at poverty reduction and rural development, TASAF I-III. We trace the interrelationship between the domestic policy process and the shifting influence of transnational ideas. We argue that the introduction of TASAF and later PSSN was strongly influenced by international trends, driven by a policy coalition of bureaucrats and development partners, but that it was sanctioned by the country’s political elites, who at times used the programmes for electoral purposes. This happened for instance by influencing the scale and speed of PSSN’s implementation prior to the national elections in 2015, despite a tradition of scepticism towards cash transfers within the ruling CCM party. Recently, President John Magufuli’s more productivist ethos, emphasising the importance of work, poses a threat to the programmes’ continuation. This may also reduce the targeting of the poorest of the poor, which constitutes a major element of PSSN as we know it.

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UNICEF Report 2017 Tanzania

UNICEF Tanzania’s work in 2017 ranged from generating strategic data and information for policy advocacy and for sharpening programmes to strengthening systems for delivering services to Tanzania’s most disadvantaged children.

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Policy transparency in the public sector The case of social benefits in Tanzania

A well functioning system of public service delivery requires the definition and measurement of eligibility for services to be determined in a transparent and non-discretionary manner. This paper uses the case of the Productive Social Safety Net in mainland Tanzania to explore factors that hinder the achievement of this objective. The eligibility criteria for the Basic Cash Transfer and Variable Cash Transfer benefits are presented, and four aspects of the eligibility criteria are highlighted that compromise transparency: community targeting, the proxy means test, the imposition of conditionalities, and the fluid nature of the eligibility documentation. The issues were encountered during the design phase of a tax and benefit microsimulation model for Tanzania and all pose challenges for policy transparency. The authors argue that there are many ways in which transparency and clarity can be enhanced in relation to social benefit policy design and implementation, and that such improvements will greatly assist the public sector in ensuring that people in Tanzania receive the support they need.

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A diagnostic on social protection needs and opportunities for forest-dependent communities in the United Republic of Tanzania

This study is aimed at gaining an understanding of the poverty and vulnerability situation of forest-dependent communities in the United Republic of Tanzania and generating information on the availability of social protection interventions, with a view to identifying pathways for establishing sustainable social protection for these communities.

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UNICEF Tanzania Youth Study of the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) Impact Evaluation: Endline Report 2017

This report provides endline results of the impact evaluation of the Government of the Republic of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) on Tanzanian youth. The impact evaluation is an 18- month, mixed methods study to provide evidence on the effects that the programme has had on youth wellbeing and the transition to adulthood. The study was conducted among a sample of households comprising part of the 4th and 5th scale-up waves of the PSSN in 2015. For the study we conducted two waves of data collection: a baseline in August – October 2015 and an endline from March – May 2017. In both waves of data collection, quantitative and qualitative interviews were conducted with youth who were between the ages of 14 and 28 years at baseline (15 – 30 years at endline). The qualitative interviews were embedded into the quantitative study design, meaning that 16 youth from study households were selected to participate in in-depth qualitative interviews to help unpack pathways of impact and provide a deeper understanding of how the PSSN affects the lives of youth in participating households. At endline, households had received on average 10 bi-monthly cash payments.

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SUN Report 2017

SUN Country Profiles provides an overview of progress toward achieving the SUN Movement’s strategic objectives in 59 SUN Countries in 2016-2017. In 2017, a record-breaking 52 countries undertook the Joint-Assessment Exercise. They did this with the participation of the different constituencies reflected within their national SUN Movement platforms. These include participants from sectoral ministries and parts of government, as well as representatives of donor agencies, civil society organisations, UN agencies and businesses.

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FAO Sierra Leone Newsletter April-July 2017

The Sierra Leone representation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has sets out three priori-ties in its new Country Programming Framework (CPF) to guide its partnership and support with the Government of Sierra Leone and other development partners from 2017 to 2019. Improved livelihoods and nutrition outcomes through improved productivity and diversification along the food system value chain using a responsible agribusiness development approach; Responsible governance and sustainable management of natural re-sources , and increased resilience and social protection for vulnerable groups constitutes the three priorities under this CPF

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Pacific Community Farmer Chef Market Linkages Event - AgriTourism Week July 2015

The first ever Pacific Community Agritourism Week on 29 June to 3 July 2015 was a collaborative effort by regional development partners including the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (European Union-funded intra-ACP Agriculture Policy Project), the South Pacific Tourism Organisation (SPTO) (EU-funded Pacific Regional Capacity Building Programme), the Pacific Islands Private Sector Organisation (PIPSO), University of the South Pacific (USP) and the ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), and the SPC. The Pacific delegates were joined by experts from the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean.

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Philippines: Sanitation, drinking-water and hygiene status overview

The Philippines has met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water and has made good progress toward the MDG for sanitation. The human rights to water and sanitation have been recognized by the Philippines since 2009 and they are noted in Republic Act 9710, which focuses on marginalized groups, including women. Section 20.b.5 recognizes that women have equal rights to the “enjoyment, use and management of water” and Section 21 of the Act notes, “The State shall develop housing programs for women that are localized, simple, accessible, with potable water…” Additionally, the Philippines recognizes 14 disadvantaged groups that are specifically targeted for universal access to water and sanitation. These groups include poor populations, people living with disabilities, women, farmers, fishermen, migrant workers and workers in the informal sector.

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Strengthening coherence between agricultural and social protection programmes Peru country case study report

The From Protection to Production (PtoP) programme, jointly with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), is exploring the linkages and strengthening coordination between social protection, agriculture and rural development. This study, commissioned by From Protection to Production (PtoP), took place in Peru between 13 and 25 May 2015, with field work in Andahuaylas Province, Apurímac Region. The team comprised Álvaro Espinoza, a local consultant, and Steve Wiggins from ODI. The study focused on two research questions: What has been learned from efforts to achieve coherence between agricultural and social protection policies and programmes? How can these lessons and insights contribute to achieving more and better coordination between the sectors? The study looked particularly at the links between a conditional cash transfer programme, Juntos, and three largely agricultural programmes, Haku Wiñay, Agrorural and Aliados II.

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The ILO at work 2014-2015: THE AMERICAS: LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

A key challenge for Latin America and the Caribbean is formalization, considering that half of the region’s workforce – around 130 million people – find themselves in the informal economy, often earning less than the minimum wage and without access to social protection. Through its Regional Programme for the Promotion of Formalization in Latin America and the Caribbean (FORLAC), the ILO has developed several initiatives that have led to legislative and policy changes in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Social actors across the region have also been active on this front. In 2015, for example, the Jamaica Employer’s Federation, with ILO support, adopted a gender-sensitive policy on the transition to formality – with guidance to support its members towards business formalization.

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The Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2017

The Right to Food and Nutrition Watch was launched by eight CSOs ten years ago, amidst the crisis, with the goal of strengthen the monitoring and accountability for the right to food and nutrition. Ten years later, despite some progress, many of the problems that led to the crisis in the first place persist. Social movements and civil society organizations (CSOs) are keeping up their struggle to transform food systems. They demand systemic transformations for a transition to sustainable production, distribution and consumption models, based on solidarity, social, environmental and gender justice, and the guarantee of the rights to food and nutrition, water, land and other territories, as well as the rights to health, social security and a healthy environment. Peoples’ sovereignty and human rights are key to achieving this—monitoring and accountability as well.

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WFP Paraguay Country Brief 2017

This brief describes the interagency project, funded by the Sustainable Development Goals Fund, integrates the efforts of FAO, WHO, UNICEF and WFP, who promote local food production, with an emphasis on risk management among indigenous populations.

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Creating one-stop-shop for sustainable businesses

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is working to improve the livelihoods of Palestinian women by enhancing the capacities of women cooperatives and associations involved in food processing, supporting them to develop marketable and exportable products along with supporting the government to develop a regulatory environment for the protection of local production and the establishment of incentives for women cooperatives. FAO has facilitated the establishment of two business-shops in the North and South of the West Bank for assembling, testing, and packaging and selling women’s cooperative products.

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Public–private partnerships for agribusiness development: A review of international experiences

To improve understanding of both the potential benefits and the challenges of agri-PPPs, the FAO has gathered 70 case studies from 15 developing countries along with evidence from field-based support to PPP initiatives for agribusiness development in Central America and Southeast Asia. This publication provides a review of this wealth of practical information. Its primary objective is to draw lessons that can be used to provide guidance to FAO member countries on how to establish effective partnerships with the private sector to mobilize support for agribusiness development. Particular attention is therefore given to analysing the existing enabling environment for agri-PPPs, the expected benefits to be achieved from these partnerships, the roles and functions of the partners, major challenges encountered, and the performance and development outcomes that resulted. Attention is also given to defining the types of public skill and the institutions required to support agri-PPPs and the circumstances under which PPPs are likely to be the best modality for achieving agribusiness outcomes.

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UNICEF Annual Report 2016 Mozambique

The situation in Mozambique was made more challenging by onset of the worst drought Mozambique has faced in 35 years. In 2016, the drought severely affected 1.5 million people with negative outcomes for food and nutrition security. UNICEF Mozambique provided significant support to the response efforts, leading the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), nutrition, education and protection clusters. Around 23,960 people were provided with access to safe water with five million cubic metres of water and drilled/ upgraded water points in 18 drought- affected districts. Together with the Ministry of Health, UNICEF Mozambique supported training of 36 health and nutrition mobile brigades to undertake community outreach, including screening, referral and treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), screening 118,000 children and treating 15,000 acutely malnourished children.

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WFP Mozambique Annual Country Report 2018

This report describes the work of WFP in Mozambique in 2018. This year was a year of change and challenge for WFP in Mozambique, as it consolidated a transition to the 2017-2021 Country Strategic Plan (CSP) in alignment with the Government’s Vision 2025 and Five-Year Plan (2015–2019). This transition involved reinforcing efforts to strengthen the capacity of government institutions associated with social protection, food security and nutrition, school feeding and emergency response. The introduction of innovative practices and technologies was a key priority, and included the use of drones, mobile vulnerability analysis and mapping (mVAM) and cash-based transfers (CBT).

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UNICEF Annual Report 2017: Guatemala

This report describes the work of UNICEF in Guatemala in 2017. The multiple social and political crises in 2017 resulted in extreme institutional instability (frequent changes of ministers and high-level government officials), social unrest (different demonstrations against the Government and against parliament), and a structural governance crisis (harsh conflicts among the three branches of Government, clash between the Government and the Commissioner of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala). This in turn resulted in frequent changes in policy design, blockage to legal reforms, slow execution of public budgets and, ultimately, slow progress or stagnation in the provision of basic social services for children. This instability had a significant impact on the implementation of the UNICEF country programme as well.

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Global Food Security Strategy (GFSS) Guatemala Country Plan

The Global Food Security Strategy (GFSS) Country Plan for Guatemala was co-written with by U.S. Government (USG) interagency involved in food security and nutrition work after extensive consultation with stakeholders from government ministries, private companies, universities, research institutes, international and local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), donors and international organizations and was given extensive review and commentary by USG interagency partners in Washington, DC. As a living document, it is intended to be updated as needed in consultation with those parties over time. The GFSS Country Plan serves as an overarching framework for integrated food security and nutrition programming. The plan is intended to describe the key drivers of food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty. These key drivers stem from a complex set of underlying conditions that exist at the individual, household, community and system level. At the design and procurement stages, the targeting, results framework and program components will require further refinement to operationalize integrated and holistic approaches.

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CSIS 2017 TRACKING PROMISES: Analyzing the Impact of Feed the Future in Guatemala

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) works to develop solutions to the world’s greatest policy challenges. Today, CSIS scholars are providing strategic insights and bipartisan policy solutions to help decision-makers chart a course toward a better world. This report draws from both a broad literature review and interviews and site visits conducted in Guatemala City and in the Western Highlands of Guatemala in October 2016. Members of the CSIS Global Food Security Project met with representatives from the government of Guatemala, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). An array of program implementing partners as well as relevant UN technical staff also contributed substantial knowledge and insight to this analysis.

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UNDP Farm to Table Project Brief

Description of Farm to Table Project Brief in Fiji and Vanuatu.

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FAO Ethiopia: National gender profile of agriculture and rural livelihoods

FAO has prepared a National gender profile of agriculture and rural livelihoods in Ethiopia as an important step towards inclusive agricultural growth and transformation. This Profile provides a very useful reference to inform the implementation and monitoring of the frameworks highlighted above with stronger attention to gender. It will also inform the country periodic reporting on the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the upcoming Beijing Plus 25 review process which will take place in 2020.

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WFP: Fill the Nutrient Gap in El Salvador

WFP with technical input from key research institutes (University of California Davis, IFPRI, Epicentre, Harvard and Mahidol) and UNICEF, developed a framework for strengthened nutrition situation analysis and decision-making, now called “Fill the Nutrient Gap”, which aims to support identification of strategies for improving complementary feeding with an emphasis on increasing access to nutrients, especially during the critical period of the first 1,000 days.

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UNICEF Annual Report 2017 Ecuador

On 16 April 2016 a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck the Pacific northwest area of Ecuador, its epicentre situated close to Muisne and Pedernales municipalities in the northern part of the country and170 km northwest of the capital, Quito. The earthquake directly affected 720,000 people, of whom 350,000 were in need of urgent assistance. Immediate needs were safe water, sanitation and hygiene, emergency and temporary shelter, health, protection (including psychosocial support and child protection), food assistance and education. By early January 2017 some 5,544 people were still living in 24 official camps managed by the Government of Ecuador, nearly half of whom (2,846) were children and adolescents, and more than 4,030 people were living in 63 informal refugee shelters. In 2017 UNICEF Ecuador’s emergency strategy shifted toward sector coordination and building local institutional capacity, and focused on developing resilient systems in all sectors to deliver long-term development results.

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WFP: Cuba Annual Country Report 2018

Throughout 2018, WFP continued to support the Government’s social protection systems for improved food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable groups by providing food assistance and capacity strengthening activities. For the first time, WFP assisted elderly people – a very vulnerable group progressively on the rise in the country – with specialised nutritious foods, in addition to its traditional support. Given the positive results, further support for this vulnerable group will be explored in the coming year. Additionally, WFP contributed to positioning nutritional education as a key topic in the school system by supporting the Nutritional Education Strategy led by the Ministry of Education. This strategy will provide key inputs for developing a behavioural-change strategy on nutrition to prevent micronutrient deficiencies and obesity.

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