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Strengthening the Philippines institutional capacity to adapt to climate change: Health sector, Book IV

In the Philippines, improving maternal health has been identified as the most likely MDG not to be achieved by the target date as the decrease of maternal deaths has been decreasing too slowly to meet targets. Due to poor health, child health is also in jeopardy. Since climate change has been identified to exacerbate the effects of poor health, ineffective mitigation and adaptation are expected to make maternal and child health more fragile. Moreover, climate change is also expected to exacerbate vector borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis. This is the last book of a four book final report. This manual is a supplement to the Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (PIDSR) Manual of Operations in order to provide guidance to health sector practitioners in making health decisions that take into account the influence of climate change and will serve as a quick reference on surveillance, a resource manual for training health personnel on climate change, and a guide for improving anticipation of health problems. This manual is designed for disease surveillance coordinators and provides guidance to users on how the PIDSR can be expanded to increase the capacity in the health sector to make decision that take into account climate change. Specifically, the manual will describe the procedure for collecting climate parameters and their integration with disease surveillance data, the analysis of their relationships which can be used for the design of public health response systems appropriate under changing climate scenarios.

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An evidence-based review of MDG-F experiences: a contribution to the QCPR process

This document was prepared by the MDG-F in 2012 to systemize its experience to date in joint programming and implementation through its 130 joint programmes in 50 countries across five regions in eight thematic areas. The document includes evidence based lessons and good practices on issues closely related to those that were discussed during the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review (QCPR), with the goal of contributing to this QCPR process. These issues include: 1. The coherence, effectiveness, relevance, and efficiency of development programmes; 2. National ownership of development processes and results; 3. Capacity development and sustainability of development results; and 4. Mutual accountability.

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Promoting the adoption of heat recovery power generation in the Chinese coal-gangue brick-making sector: support package and best practice guide

This guide provides an overview of heat recovery power generation (HRPG), examines costs and return on investment, and analyses associated risks, as well as presents a case study of a HRPG pilot project. This package has been compiled based on feasibility study reports, engineering study material, expert input gathered during workshops, and the results of a full technical, economic and financial assessment of the pilot project.

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Clean development mechanism evaluation study: adoption of heat recovery power generation within the Chinese coal-gangue brick sector

China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of building materials. The Chinese clay brick sector consumes around one billion tonnes of clay per year. Recent policies aim to limit the manufacture of clay bricks and encourage the use of industrial waste materials instead, in particular coal-gangue brick (CGB). This report is the result of a study into the potential of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to finance CGB HRPG projects in China in order to accelerate the sector-wide uptake of Heat Recovery Power Generation (HRPG )and reduce GHG emissions. The study uses a detailed cash flow model to analyse CDM potential for the CGB sector and, specifically, at the two pilot sites, applying a range of carbon price scenarios for different CDM development approaches (single project, bundled projects and programmatic CDM).

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Sectoral approach and international technology development and transfer in the electricity sector in China

This working paper focuses on the Chinese electricity sector and illustrates the importance of sectoral approach for technology development and transfer to escape lock‐in effects and achieve emission reduction. This paper also comments on the contributions to technology development from the existing proposals on sectoral approaches. It concludes by shedding some light on possible international and domestic institutional arrangements and potential demonstration projects, in order to use sectoral approach to substantially promote technology development and transfer.

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Feasibility study: rural household biogas and conservation tillage CDM project development in China

The China Climate Change Partnership Framework (CCPF) brought together nine UN Agencies, ten government line ministries, local Governments, and a host of other counterparts from academia, the public and the private sectors, to deliver a series of interventions to promote the mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation into government policy and China’s achievement of MDG-7: environmental sustainability. This paper shares some of the key findings and case studies from work in the field, as well as policy recommendations and a gap analysis identifying possible future areas of cooperation for the government of China, the United Nations System and other local and international stakeholders in China.

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China climate change partnership framework

The China Climate Change Partnership Framework (CCPF) brought together nine UN Agencies, ten Government line ministries, local Governments, and a host of other counterparts from academia, the public and the private sectors, to deliver a series of interventions to promote the mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation into Government policy and China’s achievement of MDG-7: environmental sustainability. This paper shares some of the key findings and case studies from work in the field, as well as policy recommendations and a gap analysis identifying possible future areas of cooperation for the Government of China, the United Nations System and other local and international stakeholders in China.

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Local environmental health action plans: resource manual to support training in China

The manual was developed to support training workshops conducted in four pilot Provinces in China as part of the MDG Joint Program on Climate Change. The Resource Manual provides 1) Strategic planning techniques suitable for local Environmental Health (EH) planning, 2) Resource material related to Local Key Performance Areas, 3) Resource material related to development of local climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, 4) International examples of Local Environmental Health Action Plans (LEHAP) to serve as a guide to local implementers.

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Environment and health management for climate change in China, Vol II

This report observes the change in the climate and estimates the trend of climate change in the future in China. It also analyses its associated health impacts and provides an overview of an adaptation strategy and addresses research priority areas based on a gap analysis. In regards to the response to climate change, China's public health emergency response system is introduced and the development of emergency response system has been proposed.

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Evaluation of workforce competency and training needs on environmental health in China: Vol. III

The Chinese government recognizes the need to enhance environmental and health management systems in order to prepare for expected impacts of climate change in the future. An intensive workforce training program is urgently needed for local environment and health practitioners. This evaluation of workforce competency and training needs has been carried out in order to define the training contents and targets. This document also outlines the current health management systems and structures in place, provides an overview of current training and education that is being provided, as well as offers recommendations to the Chinese government on ways to enhance the education of environmental health staff and improve current environmental health training.

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Environment and health management for climate change in China

This report has as its primary focus the identification of the Capacity Building measures necessary to prepare China and, in particular, the Ministry of Health for adaptation and mitigation policy and practice to address the public health impacts of Climate Change. It is the first of four reports and aims to 1) assess the environment and health managements system in China, 2) analyze the problems within the system, 3) develop recommendations for the system.

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The Yasuni-ITT Initiative: an international environmental equity mechanism?

This thesis aims at analysing and assessing whether the Yasuni-ITT Initiative can be considered as an alternative pilot project to address not only environmental and climate justice, but also power imbalances. Current and proposed climate change mechanisms such as the CDM and REDD, as well as the history of Ecuador are being examined as motivations of the initiative. Such motivations include injustice aspects as well as how the petroleum industry has affected the country severely in terms of environment, society, economy and politics. These motivation and the Yasuni-ITT Initiative are therefore carefully examined in relation to environmental and climate justice as well as power imbalances.

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Policy brief for climate change adaptation of the agricultural sector in Egypt

This policy brief provides an overview of the Egyptian agricultural sector, identifies key challenges facing agriculture and the need for new policy, estimates financial resources needed and savings, as well as offers policy recommendations and an overall climate change adaptation policy framework structure.

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Policy brief for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Egypt

The purpose of this document is to provide practical recommendations and emphasize the importance of policy and decision making for achieving significant national greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions while maximizing the benefits from related opportunities. It contains a list of policy recommendations for Egypt that aim to reduce GHG emissions while embracing sustainable development.

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A snapshot of views and experiences piloting new development approaches through the MDG Achievement Fund in Ethiopia

With support from the MDG Achievement Fund, the government of Ethiopia and the United Nations (UN) tested new approaches for involving some of the most vulnerable people more actively in the country’s development process. Through five programmes, new development approaches were piloted with impressive results. In addition to adopting a holistic, cross-sectorial approach, each programme focused on investing in individuals’ capabilities and social opportunities. They also strengthened entire communities through economic and self-help groups. This snapshot covers programme highlights, strategies implemented, and lessons learned from the field.

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Enabling pastoral communities to adapt to climate change and restoring rangeland environments programme in Ethiopia

With support from the MDG Achievement Fund, the government of Ethiopia and the United Nations (UN) tested new approaches for involving some of the most vulnerable people more actively in the country’s development process. Through five programmes, new development approaches were piloted with impressive results. In addition to adopting a holistic, cross-sectorial approach, each programme focused on investing in individuals’ capabilities and social opportunities. They also strengthened entire communities through economic and self-help groups. This snapshot covers programme highlights, strategies implemented, and lessons learned from the field.

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Baseline study in project Woredas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya and SNNP regions of Ethiopia

This study is part of a larger Joint Programme whose goal was to enhance the enabling policy environment to effectively plan and execute pastoralist related climate change adaptation and mitigation measures at federal, regional and district levels and pilot measures to enable the pastoral communities develop capacity for managing climate change risks and shocks in six districts. This report presents the findings of a baseline survey executed to facilitate project monitoring and evaluation. It is based on the findings of a quantitative household survey of 765 households (77% male headed and 23% female headed), 34 Key Informant Interviews at households levels and 17 Focused Group Discussions at community levels.

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Assessment of direct and indirect impacts of climate change scenarios on water availability and quality in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

The study aims to help optimize the water allocation in the Zarqa River Basin. In the future, more wastewater will be produced and more treated wastewater is expected to be used due to the increasing population and the increased connection rate and rehabilitation and expansion of the existing treatment plants. This study articulates the links between water input alternatives, their availability and other input choices to produce output, and identifies the best or optimal input strategies or the profit maximizing production path that could be followed by firms. In effect, it identifies the most efficient water utilizing options by the production sectors in terms of GDP maximization.

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Micro-level assessment of potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on socio-economic factors in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

The Zarqa basin is considered the most important basin in Jordan because it hosts about 70% of the industrial activities and about 50% of the population of the country reside on it. This study focuses on the competitiveness of water use in agriculture and other sectors and use of water of different quality. Also this study evaluates and assesses the different scenarios of water availability and quality – as a consequence of climate change in the region - depending on economic and social aspects.To simulate the complexity of the system, a base line scenario was built using the Water Resources Model (WRM). This scenario has been tested to reflect the expectation of the impact of climate change in the future.

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Assessment of treated wastewater quality under different climate change scenarios in Jordan

This assessment was part of a larger project that aimed to address wastewater quality and soil irrigated with wastewater to provide support to Jordan’s national strategies and action plans for sustainable management of its natural resources, reducing poverty, and enhancing health indicators. There were 3 main objectives to this assessment: 1) Determine the impact of using wastewater under different climatic conditions on pollutants residue in soil and the impact of different climate on wastewater quality, 2) Define the impacts of global climatic change on soil properties and seepage water quality using inorganic and organic contaminants of the irrigation water quality, and 3) Define the microbial activities under different climatic conditions.

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Assessment of direct and indirect impacts of climate change scenarios of water availability and quality in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

The Zarqa River Basin is the second main tributary to River Jordan after Yarmouk River Basin, and thus one of the most significant basins in the country with respect to its economical, social and agricultural importance. This project aimed to strengthen adaptive capacity for health protection and food security to climate change under water scarcity conditions. This report provides the results of extensive statistical analysis that helped identify the expected impact of climate change on surface water availability, water quality and the impact on groundwater. Its estimates on future levels of precipitation and temperatures are given as well as recommendations to State officials for conducting future studies as well as an emphasis on the need to prioritize climate adaptation strategies despite its potential costs.

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Sharing water, sharing benefits: working towards effective transboundary water resources management

There were 276 transboundary water basins in the world at last count, covering around 45 percent of the globe’s surface. Competition often arises between stakeholders over limited water resources and many institutions lack the capacity to overcome conflicting approaches. As communities face escalating threats to water scarcity, water managers, politicians, and engineers must work together to ensure that water is managed in an integrated manner. Many solutions to water problems lie in better governance, with sharing water as one of the key challenges to be addressed. Although there is a growing literature in the field of water conflict resolution, many water professionals still lack the necessary tools to resolve water conflicts. UNESCO has thus partnered with the World Bank in the publication of this workbook, developed through training courses and seminars funded by the International Waters Window of the World Bank-Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWPP), with the goal of making the information available to a wider audience across the globe. The publication is meant for use by mediators, instructors, and facilitators in collaborative learning exercises. The material focuses on the skills necessary for managing water disputes at all levels, from the interpersonal to the international. It is organized into two parts. Part 1 is a Participant Workbook and Part 2 is an Instructor/Facilitator Manual

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Final report on Identify and screen adaptation measures to reduce climate change impacts on food productivity in Jordan

This study was conducted in the context of the UN/FAO activities for helping developing countries make progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These goals include reduction of poverty rates (MDG1), achieving adults literacy rates (MDG2), infant mortality rate (MDG4), access to water and to sanitation (MDG7). However, these achievements are undermined by the crippling water scarcity and aggravated by climate change, thus bringing about additional threats to health, food security, productivity and human security. The purpose of this study is to identify and screen adaptation measures to reduce climate change impacts on food productivity in Jordan. It begins with a review and evaluation of suitable measures that are applicable to Jordan, creates a baseline scenario and an adaptation scenario, and recommends appropriate measures based on lessons learned from previous interventions and the goals laid out in the adaptation scenario.

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Piloting and strengthening adaptation capacity to climate change in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

Sediments and nutrients carried by the agricultural runoff are identified as the major source of Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution particularly in agricultural watersheds, such as Al-Kfair. Agricultural practices such as tilling make soil available to flow overland with storm waters, causing soil erosion which reduces crop productivity and adds sediments which act as a carrier and a storage agent for other kinds of pollutants such as phosphorous, nitrogen and organic compounds. This study aims to model the hydrological processes and assess the impact of land management practices on water quality and quantity of the Al-Kfair watershed using the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading Model. It identifies areas that are susceptible to soil erosion within the watershed and assesses the agricultural nutrient loadings that are responsible for water quality degradation.

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Adaptation to climate change in semi-arid environments experience and lessons from Mozambique

This document describes the experiences, successes and challenges being faced in implementing climate change adaptation interventions in one of the most remote districts where very few development agencies are operating. It identifies, at farm and community level, approaches that have been tested and applied and which have shown positive impact on productivity, broadening livelihood opportunities and improving resilience to climate change. It also draws attention to those interventions that are not so promising and whose sustainability and expansion are questionable. Valuable lessons learned are highlighted in several areas crucial for the success of future projects and programs in climate change adaptation. There is also an urgent need to fund and implement programs in support of national and local development plans that also serve to build climate resilience. This report will serve as a useful guide to policy-makers at all levels of government, field practitioners and international development partners (both multilateral and bilateral agencies) in the effort to find new approaches and innovations to address the serious and urgent challenge of climate change.

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