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Financing mechanisms for wastewater and sanitation

This publication is a guide for government and city planners to identify financing mechanisms as they develop their own wastewater and sanitation projects. Case studies culled from various countries provide insight on various financing instrumentalities (subsidies, output-based or performance-based aid, carbon credits, and revolving funds) and financing arrangements (local government–water utility operator and public–private partnership) available to support the sanitation agenda. Financing flowcharts should help planners visualise the flow of funds and identify funding sources, including grants and loans. Examples of financing mechanisms can help cities identify business models they can adopt given their specific circumstances.

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A guide to sanitation safety planning in the Philippines

Sanitation safety planning is a preventive risk management approach that identifies potential risks that may arise during the operation of a sanitation system, including waste collection, transportation and conveyance, treatment, disposal, and reuse. After the highest priority risks have been identified, an incremental improvement plan establishes control measures to ensure that no one in the sanitation chain is exposed to the hazards related to wastewater, greywater, and excreta. This guide describes a six-step process for sanitation safety planning in the Philippines, based on the experiences of pilot projects by two water service providers, Baliwag Water District and Maynilad Water Services, Inc.

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State of the Least Developed Countries 2016

The current report builds on the first and second editions, which considered the issues of productive capacity building as well as extreme poverty eradication in the least developed countries (LDCs) and the post-2015 development agenda. These reports provided analysis relating to the inclusion of LDC issues in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. This year’s report is dedicated to the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs using synergies with the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA). Part 1 of the report assesses progress towards achieving the goals and targets of the IPoA, particularly in the eight priority areas; reviews efforts towards this end; and identifies challenges ahead. The report argues that enhanced, coordinated and targeted support to the LDCs fulfilling ODA commitments but also going beyond, will remain critical to effectively implementing the IPoA. Part 2 of the report assesses the complementarities of the IPoA and the 2030 Agenda. It maps the goals, targets and actions of the IPoA with the SDGs, focusing on means of implementation. Furthermore it looks at how the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs can be fostered, including its mainstreaming and monitoring and followup. The conclusions and policy recommendations cover the findings in both parts of the report. As the report finds significant synergies between the IPoA and the Agenda 2030 it highlights the importance of leadership and political will and effective global partnership.

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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: achieving the industry-related goals and targets

UNIDO’s vision to address today’s economic, social and environmental challenges is enshrined in the Lima Declaration, which was adopted by UNIDO Member States in December 2013. On this basis, the Organization pursues Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (ISID) to harness industry’s full potential to contribute to lasting prosperity for all. The mandate is based on the recognition by Member States that poverty eradication “can only be achieved through strong, inclusive, sustainable and resilient economic and industrial growth, and the effective integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.” The present document summarizes the contribution of UNIDO’s mandate as well as current and planned future activities vis-à-vis the SDGs, with a special focus on SDG-9, which highlights and affirms the critical importance of ISID and its contribution to all 17 goals.

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Science, technology and innovation for sustainable urbanization

This report aims to contribute to the sustainable urbanization discourse by addressing the specific role of science, technology and innovation. It is based on literature review and an analysis of cities in developed and developing countries that provide examples that can be reapplied elsewhere. The report provides a fresh perspective on the discussion on sustainable urbanization, drawing on current research and case studies from around the world. The report identifies key sectoral planning challenges posed by rapid urbanization, particularly in developing countries, and proposes practical guidelines to city planners and other decision makers for addressing these challenges through the use of science, technology and innovation.

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The besieged Palestinian agricultural sector

The present study analyses the problems and prospects of the Palestinian agricultural sector. The study highlights the sector’s role, importance and contribution to the overall economy, and its strengths and weaknesses, as well as opportunities in the sector and constraints on the sector. The study underscores the distortions imposed by occupation and their impact on the state and prospects of the Palestinian agricultural sector.

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Drinking water, biodiversity and development

This guide addresses the linkages between drinking water, biological diversity and development/poverty alleviation. It aims to raise awareness of sustainable approaches to managing drinking water, which have been tested globally. They demonstrate how biodiversity can be used wisely to help us achieve development goals. The guide will: 1) Introduce the available techniques, technologies and procedures that optimize social and environmental outcomes in the management of drinking water; 2) Introduce good practices to the interface between drinking water, development and biodiversity; 3) Assist Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in strengthening national and sub-national drinking-water development policies, strategies, plans and projects that integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity; and 4) Provide sources and references where readers can find more detailed information.

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Establishing a workable follow-up and review process for the Sustainable Development Goals

The Open Working Group document proposes that governments will set its own national targets. They will be guided by the global level of ambition but taking into account national circumstances. To make the Post-2015 agenda actionable, much more thought needs to be given to the process of target-setting, different actors’ responsibilities, implementation and accountability.

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Towards a better life? A cautionary tale of progress in Ahmedabad

In the western Indian state of Gujarat, where Ahmedabad is located, the urban poverty rate declined from 28% in 1993-94 to 10% in 2011-12. Trade unions, such as the Self-employed Women’s Association, founded in Ahmedabad in 1972, have played a key role in organising and empowering informal workers. By 2001 Ahmedabad was already above both state and national urban averages in the coverage of drinking water, and progress has continued. The municipal government has introduced specific programmes to improve access to public utilities – water, sanitation and electricity – for slum dwellers irrespective of tenure status. Additionally, the city stands out for its ‘smart growth’ through proactive planning for urban expansion, enabling a compact urban area while allotting spaces to house poor families. However, gaps have remained and relations between communities and the government have become strained in recent years. Significant sections of the population continue to lack access to good quality services, and Ahmedabad has evolved into a city segmented by class, caste and religion. Further, across much of urban India there has been a shift in the conception of development from inclusive growth to the creation of ‘global cities’ marked by capital-intensive projects. As a result, dialogue has decreased, becoming increasingly confrontational, and the availability of public funds has diverted focus away from flexible local programmes built on a collaborative model of development. While urbanisation has been recognised as key to India’s future, the experience of Ahmedabad provides key lessons – both positive and cautionary – relevant to urbanisation both nationally and globally.

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Mapping current incentives and investment in Viet Nam's water and sanitation sector: lessons for private climate finance

This report summarising findings from the application of a diagnostic tool, is as a first step supporting governments and other stakeholders seeking to design interventions to mobilise private finance for climate-compatible development (CCD). Using this diagnostic tool in Viet Nam’s water and sanitation sector allowed us to make two distinct sets of findings that are useful for actors who want to mobilise private climate finance. The first set of findings emerges from the available data and information, through which we can identify opportunities for the Vietnamese government and development partners to modifying existing incentives and develop new tools to scale up climate-compatible investment; and where there are gaps in sources of capital that both public and private investment might fill. The second set of findings is around data gaps: unfortunately, owing to the absence of granular information and discrepancies in the definitions and categories in international and national datasets, there are challenges in understanding the impact of the country’s existing incentives on historic investment.

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On the path to progress: improving living conditions in Peru’s slum settlements

This study explores the improvements in living conditions in slum settlements located in the outskirts of cities in Peru from 1990 to 2010. This period saw significant progress in access to utilities in these areas. Positive changes were recorded in water piped directly to households, and in access to sanitation (piped sewage systems), the share of slum households with electricity and dwellings made of durable housing materials. These improvements were the result of action at different levels: political will to increase public provision of water, sanitation and electricity (financed with contributions from multilateral banks and donor resources, but increasingly with governments’ own resources); continuous pressure from community organisations; and investments in housing upgrades by households themselves. The case study offers a number of useful lessons for other countries, particularly on the fact that improving the living conditions of existing settlements is a necessary but not sufficient condition to deal with increasing urban populations; urban planning and the provision of affordable housing (ownership and rental) needs to take place in tandem with slum upgrading.

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Mind the gap? A comparison of international and national targets for the SDG agenda

The stretch required for low-income countries (LICs) to achieve SDG targets is generally greater than for middle-income and high-income countries (MICs and HICs). The gaps identified indicate where most work is needed to alter political priorities in order to realise the SDGs. Most hard work will be needed in areas that are highly politically contentious (climate policy) or expensive (secondary education, electricity and sanitation). This has implications for how governments structure a review process and how resources are mobilised for the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. The report also found a great deal of variation in the approach to measuring targets at the national level. A standardised approach would make comparisons easier and hold governments more readily to account.

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Piecing together the MDG puzzle: domestic policy, government spending and performance

Policy-makers in most of the developing countries surveyed report that the MDGs were influential in setting priorities domestically. Analysis of the education and health sectors suggests these statements are not merely tokenistic as countries reporting high influence saw increases in budget allocations. However while many countries experienced increases in government spending in social sectors over the MDG period, the majority still spend less than the recommended international benchmarks. Significant increases in government allocations will therefore be required to match the ambition of the SDGs. Recommendations for the SDG period include ensuring better data on domestic use of targets, government spending and performance are available to better assess their influence over the next 15 years and ensure the 'leave no one behind' agenda will be fulfilled.

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National MDG implementation: lessons for the SDG era

As we approach the deadline for the expiration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the start of the Sustainable Development Goals, at the end of 2015, this paper asks: how did governments respond at the national level to the set of global development goals in the form of the MDGs? Using five case study countries: Indonesia, Turkey, Mexico, Nigeria and Liberia, to reflect a mix of regions, income classifications and MDG performance, the paper draws out common trends and suggests five lessons for the post-2015 era.

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The urban-rural water interface: a preliminary study in Burkina Faso

This working paper looks at the case of Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso, and the Ziga dam and reservoir, and supports the ethos that cities take - or are given - priority over rural areas in terms of water allocation. In this case, the basis of the claim is political power by the central government. Yet the economic rationality of this decision has not been evaluated, and the principle of 'equity' of access to water for rural communities has been overlooked. This working paper aims to address these issues.

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The SDGs at city level: Mumbai's example

This report uses Mumbai as an example for an analysis of performance over time on three SDG targets at slum and settlement levels and provides recommendations for early action on SDG implementation in cities.

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Projecting progress: the SDGs in Latin America and the Caribbean

This paper presents Latin America and the Caribbean’s (LAC) likely progress across the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda, if trends continue on their current trajectories. There are significant disparities across the globe in progress both between and within countries; LAC is no exception. There are a number of disparities across sub-regions and there are disparities within countries – ethnicity, for example, is a crucial factor in determining whether someone is likely to benefit from development gains. During the Millennium Development Goals era considerable gains were made in a number of countries in LAC. However, already strong outcomes in some areas compared with other developing regions will make continued progress towards the new goals difficult.

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A thirsty future: water strategies for Ethiopia's new development era

This report discusses the costs and benefits of investments in water resources management to sustain Ethiopia’s economic growth, while ensuring that no-one is left behind. Our research shows that investments in infrastructure development to harness the potential of water resources and mitigate against climate risks need to go hand in hand with investments in institutions, the rules of the game, that set out the terms and conditions under which different groups can access and use water. Water scarcity resulting from over-exploitation and pollution risks otherwise reducing the profitability of investments and leading to competition between sectors and users, as it is the case in the Awash River Basin. Only with better, sustainable and inclusive water resources management can Ethiopia can continue to harness its water for the new development era.

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Health, migration and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

This briefing presents an overview of how international migration can have an impact on the sustainable development goal for health and well-being. It describes the health needs and health service delivery for migrants and refugees in different settings and highlights the ways they may be excluded in national policies relating to health and from specific policies that work towards achieving the Agenda 2030 on sustainable development.

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Improving WASH service delivery in protracted crises: the case of the Democratic Republic of Congo

This report examines the structural barriers that exist between humanitarian and development forms of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and identifies how they can be overcome for more effective and sustainable services in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We highlight barriers at three levels: the normative level, expressed in the humanitarian and development communities’ respective mission statements, principles and standards; the level of incentives, which are expressed in the signals given by funding and accountability arrangements as well as ingrained attitudes to risk; and the level of operational processes for targeting, implementation, staff recruitment and development, and dialogue. We recommend action to develop mutually agreeable ways of working to provide guidance at the country level and below to tackle the incentive structures created by funding, reporting and risk management structures, and to increase dialogue between humanitarian and development communities within and beyond the WASH sector.

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Improving WASH service delivery in protracted crises: the case of South Sudan

This report examines the structural barriers that exist between humanitarian and development forms of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and identifies how they can be overcome for more effective and sustainable services in South Sudan. We highlight barriers at three levels: the normative level, expressed in the humanitarian and development communities’ respective mission statements, principles and standards; the level of incentives, which are expressed in the signals given by funding and accountability arrangements as well as ingrained attitudes to risk; and the level of operational processes for targeting, implementation, staff recruitment and development, and dialogue. We recommend action to develop mutually agreeable ways of working to provide guidance at the country level and below to tackle the incentive structures created by funding, reporting and risk management structures, and to increase dialogue between humanitarian and development communities within and beyond the WASH sector.

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Sanitation under stress: how can urban services respond to acute migration?

This working paper aims to identify key research questions around the successes and failures of urban governance structures in delivering essential services to populations following large migration movements. It does so through a review of the existing literature on the subject. It then unpacks how conflict-induced migration has affected Jordan’s urban infrastructure and systems for the provision of basic services. In conclusion, we call for a research agenda that can help utilities, governments, non-governmental organisations and other service providers to better understand and overcome the challenges of sanitation provision in urban contexts ‘under stress’, without reinforcing existing inequalities or creating new ones, and to progress towards realising the Sustainable Development Goals’ aspirations for ‘universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation’ by 2030.

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Water management and stewardship: taking stock of corporate water behaviour

Commercial companies have become increasingly active in debates regarding water management. Company representatives arrive in numbers at the annual World Water Week in Stockholm and are increasingly active in sessions there, as well as appearing on panels at other water-related international conferences and meetings. The World Water Council and the OECD note that ‘companies have been outspoken’ in their ‘warnings of water risks to their operations’, which, if not managed, will ‘pose a threat to economic growth’. The discussion paper considers the opportunities for stewardship to strengthen water management and achieve development benefits, and discusses the issues to which water stewardship gives rise including identifying expectations that are misplaced and cautioning against misleading claims. The drivers of corporate ‘water behaviour(s)’ are discussed and progress towards water ‘stewardship’ against the international guides/standard assessed.

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Projecting progress: are cities on track to achieve the SDGs by 2030?

This report explores for the first time the scale of the challenge for 20 cities across the world to reach selected targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). More than half of the targets included will require a profound acceleration of efforts if they are to be achieved by the majority of selected cities. Targets that are not on course to be met by the majority of cities studied include ending child malnutrition, achieving full and productive female employment, access to adequate housing and access to drinking water and sanitation. The report makes a series of recommendations to increase progress towards the SDGs, including: 1) Central governments and donors should work to strengthen local governments’ capacities; 2) Government and city administrations should invest more in ways to monitor progress on the SDGs; 3) Statistical offices’ and cities’ information systems should improve the data available.

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Development finance for water resources: trends in the Middle East and North Africa

This paper provides an overview of development finance for water resources in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Based on analysis of reported data and interviews with donor institutions, it explores: how finance for water resources in MENA compares to that in other regions of Africa and Asia; how countries within MENA compare in their access to finance; and how donors from the region and beyond make allocation choices. Based on our findings, we make four key policy recommendations to improve the effectiveness of finance for water resources in MENA: 1. Maintain support for water resources to sustain development gains; 2. Raise the political profile of water resources reform; 3. Use politically aware and cross-departmental approaches; 4. Form innovative donor partnerships in the region.

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