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Agricultural production and groundwater conservation: examples of good practices in Shanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

Published by: ADB


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Climate change and declining water resources threaten food production systems worldwide, increasing the need for efficient agricultural processes. The Shanxi Province in the PRC has been experiencing declining groundwater tables since 1956. This publication provides examples of how ADB’s development support met the rising challenges in water security, food production, and climate change faced by communities in the Shanxi Province. It describes initiatives in four counties in the Shanxi Province selected as pilot areas, where traditional farmers learned modern methods of groundwater use and management. As a result, options for more sustainable use of groundwater were introduced, while farm labor was reduced, crop yields increased, and water was used more efficiently.

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General Information

SDGs Goal 2: Zero hunger Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation Goal 13: Climate action
Published
2016
Thematic Area
Food security and nutrition
Water and sanitation
Sustainability
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End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity over the past two decades has seen the proportion of undernourished people drop by almost half.

Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.

These are all significant achievements in reaching the targets set out by the first Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. 795 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2014, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and loss of biodiversity. Over 90 million children under the age of five are dangerously underweight. And one person in every four still goes hungry in Africa.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people – especially children and the more vulnerable – have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural practices: improving the livelihoods and capacities of small scale famers, allowing equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

Together with the other goals set out here, we can end hunger by 2030.

Zero Hunger is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 2.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity over the past two decades has seen the proportion of undernourished people drop by almost half.

Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.

These are all significant achievements in reaching the targets set out by the first Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. 795 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2014, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and loss of biodiversity. Over 90 million children under the age of five are dangerously underweight. And one person in every four still goes hungry in Africa.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people – especially children and the more vulnerable – have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural practices: improving the livelihoods and capacities of small scale famers, allowing equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

Together with the other goals set out here, we can end hunger by 2030.

Zero Hunger is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 2.

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The SDG Fund response

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food. The SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  • Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  • Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • In Ecuador’s Imbabura region, the SDG Fund joint programme is putting into practice an integrated approach to tackle some of the most pressing challenges in the country: building income opportunities for the small farmer-owned production units, overhauling the country’s local food production for better access to safe, affordable and nutritious food and fighting malnutrition and anemia.
  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme is increasing access to health services and promoting women-owned micro-businesses to reduce the high rates of under nutrition and obesity.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using surveys to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment on food security and nutrition. With the support of the National Nutrition Council, the programme is working with the government to take well-informed decisions on targeting the appropriate recipients and in promoting micronutrient rich foods. The programme is working to empower women and to influence behavior changes in children.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.
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The SDG Fund response

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food. The SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  • Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  • Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • In Ecuador’s Imbabura region, the SDG Fund joint programme is putting into practice an integrated approach to tackle some of the most pressing challenges in the country: building income opportunities for the small farmer-owned production units, overhauling the country’s local food production for better access to safe, affordable and nutritious food and fighting malnutrition and anemia.
  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme is increasing access to health services and promoting women-owned micro-businesses to reduce the high rates of under nutrition and obesity.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using surveys to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment on food security and nutrition. With the support of the National Nutrition Council, the programme is working with the government to take well-informed decisions on targeting the appropriate recipients and in promoting micronutrient rich foods. The programme is working to empower women and to influence behavior changes in children.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.
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  • By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
  • By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
  • By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
  • By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
  • Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
  • Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
  • Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
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  • By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
  • By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
  • By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
  • By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
  • Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
  • Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
  • Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
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Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a consequence of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent.

In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress; ten of them are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on non-conventional sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already exacerbating these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages.

Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if we are to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries.  

Universal access to clean water and sanitation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 6.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a consequence of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent.

In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress; ten of them are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on non-conventional sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already exacerbating these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages.

Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if we are to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries.  

Universal access to clean water and sanitation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 6.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 6 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 6 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 302 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-06.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-06.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 81935 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138347 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  • Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  • Ensuring healthy lives
  • Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

For example,

  • The Colombian Massif region is home to the most important watershed in the country. It’s also one of the largest reserves of fresh water in equatorial areas worldwide. Despite being designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, deforestation coupled with conflict, the emergence of illicit crops, and deregulated agricultural borders of indigenous rural communities in the last decade have deteriorated the region. In order to better assess the current state of water resources in the area and stimulate a major regional agreement for water, the SDG Fund is working with administrations, community councils, community aqueduct consumer boards, indigenous rural representatives and the education sector. The aim is to develop protection plans for the watershed and surrounding forests, and provide technical cooperation towards integrated water management.
  • In the Philippines, the joint programme builds on the experiences and gains of previous programmes on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.
  • In Sri Lanka, the SDG Fund programme is carrying out surveys to gather data on the water and sanitation services availabile at all 10,000 schools. With this information, the Ministry of Education will ensure that all schools and students have access to clean water and sanitation, which is key to improve educational outcomes and nutrition status of students.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  • Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  • Ensuring healthy lives
  • Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

For example,

  • The Colombian Massif region is home to the most important watershed in the country. It’s also one of the largest reserves of fresh water in equatorial areas worldwide. Despite being designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, deforestation coupled with conflict, the emergence of illicit crops, and deregulated agricultural borders of indigenous rural communities in the last decade have deteriorated the region. In order to better assess the current state of water resources in the area and stimulate a major regional agreement for water, the SDG Fund is working with administrations, community councils, community aqueduct consumer boards, indigenous rural representatives and the education sector. The aim is to develop protection plans for the watershed and surrounding forests, and provide technical cooperation towards integrated water management.
  • In the Philippines, the joint programme builds on the experiences and gains of previous programmes on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.
  • In Sri Lanka, the SDG Fund programme is carrying out surveys to gather data on the water and sanitation services availabile at all 10,000 schools. With this information, the Ministry of Education will ensure that all schools and students have access to clean water and sanitation, which is key to improve educational outcomes and nutrition status of students.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
  • By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
  • By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  • By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
  • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
  • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
  • Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
  • By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
  • By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  • By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
  • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
  • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
  • Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
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Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action.

Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 13.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action.

Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 13.

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The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.

The following criteria are essential elements observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

For example,

  • In Cuba, the SDG Fund is strengthening resilience and improving access to water in tackling the impacts of recent droughts, noted as the worst in recent history, affecting more than one million people.
  • In Fiji, a SDG Fund programme is building the capacity of young farmers in organic agriculture for climate resilience.  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.

The following criteria are essential elements observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

For example,

  • In Cuba, the SDG Fund is strengthening resilience and improving access to water in tackling the impacts of recent droughts, noted as the worst in recent history, affecting more than one million people.
  • In Fiji, a SDG Fund programme is building the capacity of young farmers in organic agriculture for climate resilience.  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
  • Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
  • Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
  • Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
  • Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

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Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food.

Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years.

There is no magic bullet that can eliminate hunger and under-nutrition, given the complex nature of these problems. There are many inter-related issues, some of which are related to poverty and lack of empowerment. These include gender issues, discrimination against ethnic groups, land use, rights and ownership, war, the HIV pandemic, and environmental issues. Food solutions need to be integrated and multifaceted.

Efforts to realise the “right to adequate food” must go beyond improving the production and distribution of nutritious food. “Safety nets” should systematically include or be accompanied by measures to promote sustainable livelihoods for households with malnourished children.

Adequate feeding and care should be an integral part of national strategies and programmes to reduce hunger and undernutrition. This includes promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding, basic requirements for nutritional well being.

The SDG Fund response

Under the Food Security and Nutrition area, the SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  2. Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  3. Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme will increase access to health services and promote women-owned food micro-businesses.
  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund will work in 4 municipalities to increase the participation of children, youth, women and men in food security local governance mechanisms. These include citizen monitoring of health services, promoting the empowerment and participation of local leaders, especially women, and strengthening public local institutions.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.

 

Current SDG Fund food security and nutrition programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BoliviaImproving the nutritional status of children from the strengthening of local production systemsFAO, UNICEF, UNIDO

1,800,000

EcuadorStrengthening local food systems and capacity building aimed at improving the production of and  access to safe food for familiesFAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO

3,027,284

El SalvadorFood, Security and Nutrition for Children and Salvadoran Households (SANNHOS)FAO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP

4,226,164

GuatemalaFood and Nutrition Security Prioritized Municipalities of the Department of San MarcosWHO, FAO, UNICEF, WFP

3,867,712

ParaguayParaguay protects, promotes, and facilitates effective implementation of the right to Food Security and Nutrition in prioritized vulnerable populationsWHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP

3,000,000

Sri LankaScaling up nutrition through a multi-sector approachWFP, FAO

3,010,643

Viet NamJoint Programme on Integrated Nutrition and Food Security Strategies for Children and Vulnerable Groups in Viet NamFAO, UNICEF, WHO

3,330,000

 

Total

22,261,803

Previous programmes:

Children, Food Security and Nutrition was one of eight MDG-F thematic windows. The goal of the MDG-F's work in this area was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger and halt preventable deaths caused by poor nutrition. These initiatives targeted the poorest and most vulnerable, including indigenous communities. Activities ranged from providing low cost nutritional packages to engaging with pregnant and lactating mothers to promote breastfeeding and ensure they are healthy and aware of key nutrition issues. Promoting food security and advocating for mainstreaming children's rights to food into national plans and policies are also key elements in our fight against under nutrition.

 

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food.

Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years.

There is no magic bullet that can eliminate hunger and under-nutrition, given the complex nature of these problems. There are many inter-related issues, some of which are related to poverty and lack of empowerment. These include gender issues, discrimination against ethnic groups, land use, rights and ownership, war, the HIV pandemic, and environmental issues. Food solutions need to be integrated and multifaceted.

Efforts to realise the “right to adequate food” must go beyond improving the production and distribution of nutritious food. “Safety nets” should systematically include or be accompanied by measures to promote sustainable livelihoods for households with malnourished children.

Adequate feeding and care should be an integral part of national strategies and programmes to reduce hunger and undernutrition. This includes promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding, basic requirements for nutritional well being.

The SDG Fund response

Under the Food Security and Nutrition area, the SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  2. Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  3. Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme will increase access to health services and promote women-owned food micro-businesses.
  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund will work in 4 municipalities to increase the participation of children, youth, women and men in food security local governance mechanisms. These include citizen monitoring of health services, promoting the empowerment and participation of local leaders, especially women, and strengthening public local institutions.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.

 

Current SDG Fund food security and nutrition programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BoliviaImproving the nutritional status of children from the strengthening of local production systemsFAO, UNICEF, UNIDO

1,800,000

EcuadorStrengthening local food systems and capacity building aimed at improving the production of and  access to safe food for familiesFAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO

3,027,284

El SalvadorFood, Security and Nutrition for Children and Salvadoran Households (SANNHOS)FAO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP

4,226,164

GuatemalaFood and Nutrition Security Prioritized Municipalities of the Department of San MarcosWHO, FAO, UNICEF, WFP

3,867,712

ParaguayParaguay protects, promotes, and facilitates effective implementation of the right to Food Security and Nutrition in prioritized vulnerable populationsWHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP

3,000,000

Sri LankaScaling up nutrition through a multi-sector approachWFP, FAO

3,010,643

Viet NamJoint Programme on Integrated Nutrition and Food Security Strategies for Children and Vulnerable Groups in Viet NamFAO, UNICEF, WHO

3,330,000

 

Total

22,261,803

Previous programmes:

Children, Food Security and Nutrition was one of eight MDG-F thematic windows. The goal of the MDG-F's work in this area was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger and halt preventable deaths caused by poor nutrition. These initiatives targeted the poorest and most vulnerable, including indigenous communities. Activities ranged from providing low cost nutritional packages to engaging with pregnant and lactating mothers to promote breastfeeding and ensure they are healthy and aware of key nutrition issues. Promoting food security and advocating for mainstreaming children's rights to food into national plans and policies are also key elements in our fight against under nutrition.

 

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The global prevalence of malnutrition and hunger remains unacceptable,
undermining the prospects of millions.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The global prevalence of malnutrition and hunger remains unacceptable,
undermining the prospects of millions.

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Access to water is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Safe drinking water is a scarce and limited resource. Better water resource management and governance can ensure there will be enough water to meet increasing demand. We need to establish good management practices, responsible regulation, and proper pricing.

Improving access – as well as quality – is becoming more urgent as the world faces increasing water scarcity. People living in poverty are likely to be most at risk. Good governance of water and sanitation services ensures that the voices of the poor and vulnerable are heard.

Globally, 768 million people drink unsafe water. 1.8 billion people’s drinking water source is contaminated. 2.5 billion people have no access to hygienic sanitation facilities, and half of those have no sanitation facilities at all.

The Post-2015 consultation resulted in a call for action to ensure universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centres and refugee camps. This is a global minimum standard that should be applied to everyone.

Despite progress towards the water MDG, much more needs to be done. Improving water and sanitation would have a large impact on advancing overall human development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund, following the experience of its precursor the MDG Fund, brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  2. Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  3. Ensuring healthy lives
  4. Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

The joint programme in the Philippines builds on the experiences and gains of two previously MDG-F implemented ones, on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.

 


[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Access to water is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Safe drinking water is a scarce and limited resource. Better water resource management and governance can ensure there will be enough water to meet increasing demand. We need to establish good management practices, responsible regulation, and proper pricing.

Improving access – as well as quality – is becoming more urgent as the world faces increasing water scarcity. People living in poverty are likely to be most at risk. Good governance of water and sanitation services ensures that the voices of the poor and vulnerable are heard.

Globally, 768 million people drink unsafe water. 1.8 billion people’s drinking water source is contaminated. 2.5 billion people have no access to hygienic sanitation facilities, and half of those have no sanitation facilities at all.

The Post-2015 consultation resulted in a call for action to ensure universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centres and refugee camps. This is a global minimum standard that should be applied to everyone.

Despite progress towards the water MDG, much more needs to be done. Improving water and sanitation would have a large impact on advancing overall human development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund, following the experience of its precursor the MDG Fund, brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  2. Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  3. Ensuring healthy lives
  4. Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

The joint programme in the Philippines builds on the experiences and gains of two previously MDG-F implemented ones, on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.

 


[safe_summary] => ) ) ) [field_short_description] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Improving access to affordable, secure, and reliable water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalized. [format] => [safe_value] => Improving access to affordable, secure, and reliable water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalized. ) ) ) [field_icon_class] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => fa fa-tint [format] => [safe_value] => fa fa-tint ) ) ) [field_subtitle] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Good governance of water resources is a crucial factor
in achieving sustainable development.

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Good governance of water resources is a crucial factor in achieving sustainable development.

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 7 [uid] => 1 [filename] => Philippines-Erwin-Lim-Til-the-Last-Drop.jpg [uri] => public://Philippines-Erwin-Lim-Til-the-Last-Drop.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 152538 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1067 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1067 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => crosscuting_issue ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [2] => Array ( [target_id] => 56 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 4671 [uid] => 1 [title] => Sustainability [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 56 [type] => thematic_area [language] => en [created] => 1421393790 [changed] => 1499981249 [tnid] => 56 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1499981249 [revision_uid] => 1 [body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

[safe_summary] => ) ) ) [field_short_description] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains. [format] => [safe_value] => Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains. ) ) ) [field_icon_class] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => fa fa-recycle [format] => [safe_value] => fa fa-recycle ) ) ) [field_subtitle] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains

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Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 8 [uid] => 1 [filename] => Nicaragua-environment-woman-at-well.jpg [uri] => public://Nicaragua-environment-woman-at-well.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 137912 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1183 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1183 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => crosscuting_issue ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_downloads] => Array ( ) [field_delivering_as_one] => Array ( ) [field_country_entity] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [iso2] => CN [value] => CN [country] => Entity Object ( [entityType:protected] => country [entityInfo:protected] => Array ( [label] => Country [entity class] => Entity [controller class] => EntityAPIControllerExportable [base table] => countries_country [fieldable] => 1 [module] => countries [entity keys] => Array ( [id] => cid [name] => iso2 [label] => name [revision] => [bundle] => ) [bundles] => Array ( [country] => Array ( [label] => Country [admin] => Array ( [path] => admin/config/regional/countries [access arguments] => Array ( [0] => administer site configuration ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) ) [view modes] => Array ( [full] => Array ( [label] => Country [custom settings] => ) [token] => Array ( [label] => Tokens [custom settings] => ) ) [static cache] => 1 [field cache] => 1 [load hook] => country_load [translation] => Array ( ) [base table field types] => Array ( [cid] => serial [iso2] => char [iso3] => char [name] => varchar [official_name] => varchar [numcode] => int [continent] => char [enabled] => int [language] => varchar ) [schema_fields_sql] => Array ( [base table] => Array ( [0] => cid [1] => iso2 [2] => iso3 [3] => name [4] => official_name [5] => numcode [6] => continent [7] => enabled [8] => language ) ) [label callback] => countries_i18n_country_entity_label [token type] => country [configuration] => ) [idKey:protected] => cid [nameKey:protected] => iso2 [statusKey:protected] => status [defaultLabel:protected] => [wrapper:protected] => [cid] => 46 [iso2] => CN [iso3] => CHN [name] => China [official_name] => People's Republic of China [numcode] => 156 [continent] => AS [enabled] => 1 [language] => und [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) [safe_value] => China [safe] => China ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Climate change and declining water resources threaten food production systems worldwide, increasing the need for efficient agricultural processes. The Shanxi Province in the PRC has been experiencing declining groundwater tables since 1956. This publication provides examples of how ADB’s development support met the rising challenges in water security, food production, and climate change faced by communities in the Shanxi Province. It describes initiatives in four counties in the Shanxi Province selected as pilot areas, where traditional farmers learned modern methods of groundwater use and management. As a result, options for more sustainable use of groundwater were introduced, while farm labor was reduced, crop yields increased, and water was used more efficiently. [format] => [safe_value] => Climate change and declining water resources threaten food production systems worldwide, increasing the need for efficient agricultural processes. The Shanxi Province in the PRC has been experiencing declining groundwater tables since 1956. This publication provides examples of how ADB’s development support met the rising challenges in water security, food production, and climate change faced by communities in the Shanxi Province. It describes initiatives in four counties in the Shanxi Province selected as pilot areas, where traditional farmers learned modern methods of groundwater use and management. As a result, options for more sustainable use of groundwater were introduced, while farm labor was reduced, crop yields increased, and water was used more efficiently. ) ) ) [field_year] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => 2016-01-01 00:00:00 [timezone] => America/New_York [timezone_db] => America/New_York [date_type] => datetime ) ) ) [field_publication_keywords] => Array ( ) [field_publisher] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => ADB [format] => [safe_value] => ADB ) ) ) [field_region] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 260 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 1020 [uid] => 1 [title] => Asia [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 260 [type] => region [language] => en [created] => 1450896508 [changed] => 1450896508 [tnid] => 260 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1450896508 [revision_uid] => 1 [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_thumb] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 2097 [uid] => 1 [filename] => agri-prod-groundwater-prc-1.png [uri] => public://agri-prod-groundwater-prc-1.png [filemime] => image/png [filesize] => 599292 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1488957908 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 792 [width] => 612 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 792 [width] => 612 ) ) ) [field_featured] => Array ( ) [field_file_fr] => Array ( ) [field_file_ar] => Array ( ) [field_file_pt] => Array ( ) [field_file_es] => Array ( ) [field_external_link] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/211601/agri-prod-groundwater-prc.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/211601/agri-prod-groundwater-prc.pdf ) ) ) [field_external_link_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => External Link [format] => [safe_value] => External Link ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => Library Manager 1 [picture] => 0 [data] => a:1:{s:7:"contact";i:0;} [entity_view_prepared] => 1 ) [#items] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/211601/agri-prod-groundwater-prc.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/211601/agri-prod-groundwater-prc.pdf ) ) [#formatter] => text_plain [0] => Array ( [#markup] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/211601/agri-prod-groundwater-prc.pdf ) [#description] => Please enter the full URL, e.g. http://www.example.com [#printed] => 1 )