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The unintended consequences of agricultural input intensification: human health implications of agro-chemical use in Sub-Saharan Africa

Published by: AfDB


About

While agro-chemicals such as pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides are often promoted as inputs that increase agricultural productivity by limiting a range of pre-harvest losses, their use may have negative human health and labor productivity implications. We explore the relationship between agro-chemical use and the value of crop output at the plot level and a range of human health outcomes at the household level using nationally representative panel survey data from four Sub-Saharan African countries where more than ten percent of main season cultivators use agro-chemicals. We find that agro-chemicals use is associated with increased value of harvest, with similar magnitudes across three of the four countries under study, but is also associated with increases in costs associated with human illness, including increased health expenditures related to illness and time lost from work due to sickness in recent past. We motivate our empirical work with a simple dynamic optimization model that clearly shows the role that farmer understanding of these feedbacks can play in optimizing the use of agro-chemicals. The central role of information in determining that optimum underscores the role of agricultural and public health extension as modern input intensification proceeds in the region.

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General Information

SDGs Goal 2: Zero hunger Goal 3: Good health and well-being Goal 12: Responsible consumption, production
Published
2016
Thematic Area
Food security and nutrition
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End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity over the past two decades has seen the proportion of undernourished people drop by almost half.

Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.

These are all significant achievements in reaching the targets set out by the first Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. 795 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2014, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and loss of biodiversity. Over 90 million children under the age of five are dangerously underweight. And one person in every four still goes hungry in Africa.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people – especially children and the more vulnerable – have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural practices: improving the livelihoods and capacities of small scale famers, allowing equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

Together with the other goals set out here, we can end hunger by 2030.

Zero Hunger is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 2.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity over the past two decades has seen the proportion of undernourished people drop by almost half.

Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.

These are all significant achievements in reaching the targets set out by the first Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. 795 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2014, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and loss of biodiversity. Over 90 million children under the age of five are dangerously underweight. And one person in every four still goes hungry in Africa.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people – especially children and the more vulnerable – have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural practices: improving the livelihoods and capacities of small scale famers, allowing equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

Together with the other goals set out here, we can end hunger by 2030.

Zero Hunger is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 2.

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The SDG Fund response

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food. The SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  • Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  • Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • In Ecuador’s Imbabura region, the SDG Fund joint programme is putting into practice an integrated approach to tackle some of the most pressing challenges in the country: building income opportunities for the small farmer-owned production units, overhauling the country’s local food production for better access to safe, affordable and nutritious food and fighting malnutrition and anemia.
  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme is increasing access to health services and promoting women-owned micro-businesses to reduce the high rates of under nutrition and obesity.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using surveys to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment on food security and nutrition. With the support of the National Nutrition Council, the programme is working with the government to take well-informed decisions on targeting the appropriate recipients and in promoting micronutrient rich foods. The programme is working to empower women and to influence behavior changes in children.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.
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The SDG Fund response

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food. The SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  • Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  • Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • In Ecuador’s Imbabura region, the SDG Fund joint programme is putting into practice an integrated approach to tackle some of the most pressing challenges in the country: building income opportunities for the small farmer-owned production units, overhauling the country’s local food production for better access to safe, affordable and nutritious food and fighting malnutrition and anemia.
  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme is increasing access to health services and promoting women-owned micro-businesses to reduce the high rates of under nutrition and obesity.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using surveys to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment on food security and nutrition. With the support of the National Nutrition Council, the programme is working with the government to take well-informed decisions on targeting the appropriate recipients and in promoting micronutrient rich foods. The programme is working to empower women and to influence behavior changes in children.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.
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  • By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
  • By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
  • By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
  • By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
  • Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
  • Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
  • Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
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  • By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
  • By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
  • By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
  • By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
  • Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
  • Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
  • Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
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Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all

Since the creation of the Millennium Development Goals there have been historic achievements in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and tackling HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other diseases. In 15 years, the number of people newly infected by HIV each year has dropped from 3.1 million to 2 million and over 6.2 million lives were saved from malaria. Since 1990, maternal mortality fell by 45 percent, and worldwide there has been an over 50 percent decline in preventable child deaths globally.  

Despite this incredible progress, AIDS is the leading cause of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and 22 million people living with HIV are not accessing life-saving antiretroviral therapy. New HIV infections continue to rise in some locations and in populations that are typically excluded or marginalised.

Chronic and catastrophic disease remains one of the main factors that push households from poverty into deprivation. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) impose a large burden on human health worldwide. Currently, 63% of all deaths worldwide stem from NCDs – chiefly cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. The cumulative economic losses to low- and middle-income countries from the four diseases are estimated to surpass US$ 7 trillion by 2025. Additionally, there continues to be underinvestment in the social circumstances and environmental factors affecting health. The job on HIV and health is far from done.

Recognizing the interdependence of health and development, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an ambitious, comprehensive plan of action for people, planet and prosperity and for ending the injustices that underpin poor health and development outcomes.

SDG 3 aspires to ensure health and well-being for all, including a bold commitment to end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030. It also aims to achieve universal health coverage, and provide access to safe and effective medicines and vaccines for all. Supporting research and development for vaccines is an essential part of this process as well as expanding access to affordable medicines.

Promoting health and well-being is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 3.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all

Since the creation of the Millennium Development Goals there have been historic achievements in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and tackling HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other diseases. In 15 years, the number of people newly infected by HIV each year has dropped from 3.1 million to 2 million and over 6.2 million lives were saved from malaria. Since 1990, maternal mortality fell by 45 percent, and worldwide there has been an over 50 percent decline in preventable child deaths globally.  

Despite this incredible progress, AIDS is the leading cause of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and 22 million people living with HIV are not accessing life-saving antiretroviral therapy. New HIV infections continue to rise in some locations and in populations that are typically excluded or marginalised.

Chronic and catastrophic disease remains one of the main factors that push households from poverty into deprivation. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) impose a large burden on human health worldwide. Currently, 63% of all deaths worldwide stem from NCDs – chiefly cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. The cumulative economic losses to low- and middle-income countries from the four diseases are estimated to surpass US$ 7 trillion by 2025. Additionally, there continues to be underinvestment in the social circumstances and environmental factors affecting health. The job on HIV and health is far from done.

Recognizing the interdependence of health and development, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an ambitious, comprehensive plan of action for people, planet and prosperity and for ending the injustices that underpin poor health and development outcomes.

SDG 3 aspires to ensure health and well-being for all, including a bold commitment to end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030. It also aims to achieve universal health coverage, and provide access to safe and effective medicines and vaccines for all. Supporting research and development for vaccines is an essential part of this process as well as expanding access to affordable medicines.

Promoting health and well-being is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 3.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 3 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 3 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 292 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-03.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-03.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 82134 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137423 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

By incorporating health services and health specialists, the SDG Fund programmes tackle the health challenges and opportunities underlying intersectoral interventions. In addition, the SDG Fund, particularly through the work of the World Health Organization, promotes positive changes in national and local health policies.

For example,

  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund programme is addressing the health damages produced by aflatoxin contamination in corn. A risk analysis report is determining the prevalence and damage to health and a pilot is being tested to be expanded to other regions in the country.
  • In Paraguay, the SDG Fund is working with the health system as part of a cross-sector approach for indigenous and vulnerable rural households, particularly female headed families, to produce nutritious and diversified food production. Health personnel is being trained on new monitoring systems to track health and nutrition status.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using national surveys for more efficient and effective investments in food security and nutrition by highlighting the gaps, opportunities and impact of current initiatives. For example, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) includes a detailed assessment of nutrition for children under 5 and a manual on health and nutrition for preschool is being developed to improve nutrition in schools.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

By incorporating health services and health specialists, the SDG Fund programmes tackle the health challenges and opportunities underlying intersectoral interventions. In addition, the SDG Fund, particularly through the work of the World Health Organization, promotes positive changes in national and local health policies.

For example,

  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund programme is addressing the health damages produced by aflatoxin contamination in corn. A risk analysis report is determining the prevalence and damage to health and a pilot is being tested to be expanded to other regions in the country.
  • In Paraguay, the SDG Fund is working with the health system as part of a cross-sector approach for indigenous and vulnerable rural households, particularly female headed families, to produce nutritious and diversified food production. Health personnel is being trained on new monitoring systems to track health and nutrition status.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using national surveys for more efficient and effective investments in food security and nutrition by highlighting the gaps, opportunities and impact of current initiatives. For example, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) includes a detailed assessment of nutrition for children under 5 and a manual on health and nutrition for preschool is being developed to improve nutrition in schools.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
  • By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
  • By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
  • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
  • Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
  • By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
  • By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
  • Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
  • Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
  • Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
  • Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
  • By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
  • By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
  • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
  • Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
  • By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
  • By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
  • Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
  • Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
  • Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
  • Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
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Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater appropriated for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs. Halving per capita global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy.

Responsible production and consumption is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 12.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater appropriated for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs. Halving per capita global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy.

Responsible production and consumption is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 12.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 12 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 12 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 320 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-12.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-12.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 106280 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450139752 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund is collaborating with partners, including from the private sector, to promote more responsible consumption and outsourcing practices, with a particular focus on ensuring that local farmers can obtain a fairer share of the value generated across the value chain.

For example,

  • The SDG Fund is working with the UNDP Goodwill Ambassadors, the Roca Brothers chefs, who are leading a conversation on how chefs can make a difference in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. At the UN ECOSOC Chamber they gathered with key representatives of the food, nutrition, and development world to discuss how the food industry can contribute to achieve the SDGs and make food accessible for everyone everywhere. They are already working on the ground in some specific projects, including in Nigeria.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
  • In Fiji, the SDG Fund is promoting organic agriculture, a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The programme is working with the tourism industry to ensure that organic production satisfies a growing demand in the industry.
  • In Bolivia, the SDG Fund joint programme is supporting four municipalities to establish sustainable agricultural production systems which will increase the incomes of the poorest families and improve the nutritional state of boys, girls and mothers.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund is collaborating with partners, including from the private sector, to promote more responsible consumption and outsourcing practices, with a particular focus on ensuring that local farmers can obtain a fairer share of the value generated across the value chain.

For example,

  • The SDG Fund is working with the UNDP Goodwill Ambassadors, the Roca Brothers chefs, who are leading a conversation on how chefs can make a difference in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. At the UN ECOSOC Chamber they gathered with key representatives of the food, nutrition, and development world to discuss how the food industry can contribute to achieve the SDGs and make food accessible for everyone everywhere. They are already working on the ground in some specific projects, including in Nigeria.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
  • In Fiji, the SDG Fund is promoting organic agriculture, a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The programme is working with the tourism industry to ensure that organic production satisfies a growing demand in the industry.
  • In Bolivia, the SDG Fund joint programme is supporting four municipalities to establish sustainable agricultural production systems which will increase the incomes of the poorest families and improve the nutritional state of boys, girls and mothers.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
  • By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
  • By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
  • By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
  • By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
  • Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
  • Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
  • By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
  • Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
  • Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
  • By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
  • By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
  • By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
  • By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
  • Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
  • Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
  • By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
  • Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
  • Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 12 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 12 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_thematic_area] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 54 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 4673 [uid] => 1 [title] => Food security and nutrition [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 54 [type] => thematic_area [language] => en [created] => 1421393701 [changed] => 1499981303 [tnid] => 54 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1499981303 [revision_uid] => 1 [body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food.

Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years.

There is no magic bullet that can eliminate hunger and under-nutrition, given the complex nature of these problems. There are many inter-related issues, some of which are related to poverty and lack of empowerment. These include gender issues, discrimination against ethnic groups, land use, rights and ownership, war, the HIV pandemic, and environmental issues. Food solutions need to be integrated and multifaceted.

Efforts to realise the “right to adequate food” must go beyond improving the production and distribution of nutritious food. “Safety nets” should systematically include or be accompanied by measures to promote sustainable livelihoods for households with malnourished children.

Adequate feeding and care should be an integral part of national strategies and programmes to reduce hunger and undernutrition. This includes promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding, basic requirements for nutritional well being.

The SDG Fund response

Under the Food Security and Nutrition area, the SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  2. Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  3. Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme will increase access to health services and promote women-owned food micro-businesses.
  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund will work in 4 municipalities to increase the participation of children, youth, women and men in food security local governance mechanisms. These include citizen monitoring of health services, promoting the empowerment and participation of local leaders, especially women, and strengthening public local institutions.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.

 

Current SDG Fund food security and nutrition programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BoliviaImproving the nutritional status of children from the strengthening of local production systemsFAO, UNICEF, UNIDO

1,800,000

EcuadorStrengthening local food systems and capacity building aimed at improving the production of and  access to safe food for familiesFAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO

3,027,284

El SalvadorFood, Security and Nutrition for Children and Salvadoran Households (SANNHOS)FAO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP

4,226,164

GuatemalaFood and Nutrition Security Prioritized Municipalities of the Department of San MarcosWHO, FAO, UNICEF, WFP

3,867,712

ParaguayParaguay protects, promotes, and facilitates effective implementation of the right to Food Security and Nutrition in prioritized vulnerable populationsWHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP

3,000,000

Sri LankaScaling up nutrition through a multi-sector approachWFP, FAO

3,010,643

Viet NamJoint Programme on Integrated Nutrition and Food Security Strategies for Children and Vulnerable Groups in Viet NamFAO, UNICEF, WHO

3,330,000

 

Total

22,261,803

Previous programmes:

Children, Food Security and Nutrition was one of eight MDG-F thematic windows. The goal of the MDG-F's work in this area was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger and halt preventable deaths caused by poor nutrition. These initiatives targeted the poorest and most vulnerable, including indigenous communities. Activities ranged from providing low cost nutritional packages to engaging with pregnant and lactating mothers to promote breastfeeding and ensure they are healthy and aware of key nutrition issues. Promoting food security and advocating for mainstreaming children's rights to food into national plans and policies are also key elements in our fight against under nutrition.

 

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food.

Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years.

There is no magic bullet that can eliminate hunger and under-nutrition, given the complex nature of these problems. There are many inter-related issues, some of which are related to poverty and lack of empowerment. These include gender issues, discrimination against ethnic groups, land use, rights and ownership, war, the HIV pandemic, and environmental issues. Food solutions need to be integrated and multifaceted.

Efforts to realise the “right to adequate food” must go beyond improving the production and distribution of nutritious food. “Safety nets” should systematically include or be accompanied by measures to promote sustainable livelihoods for households with malnourished children.

Adequate feeding and care should be an integral part of national strategies and programmes to reduce hunger and undernutrition. This includes promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding, basic requirements for nutritional well being.

The SDG Fund response

Under the Food Security and Nutrition area, the SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  2. Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  3. Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme will increase access to health services and promote women-owned food micro-businesses.
  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund will work in 4 municipalities to increase the participation of children, youth, women and men in food security local governance mechanisms. These include citizen monitoring of health services, promoting the empowerment and participation of local leaders, especially women, and strengthening public local institutions.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.

 

Current SDG Fund food security and nutrition programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BoliviaImproving the nutritional status of children from the strengthening of local production systemsFAO, UNICEF, UNIDO

1,800,000

EcuadorStrengthening local food systems and capacity building aimed at improving the production of and  access to safe food for familiesFAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO

3,027,284

El SalvadorFood, Security and Nutrition for Children and Salvadoran Households (SANNHOS)FAO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP

4,226,164

GuatemalaFood and Nutrition Security Prioritized Municipalities of the Department of San MarcosWHO, FAO, UNICEF, WFP

3,867,712

ParaguayParaguay protects, promotes, and facilitates effective implementation of the right to Food Security and Nutrition in prioritized vulnerable populationsWHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP

3,000,000

Sri LankaScaling up nutrition through a multi-sector approachWFP, FAO

3,010,643

Viet NamJoint Programme on Integrated Nutrition and Food Security Strategies for Children and Vulnerable Groups in Viet NamFAO, UNICEF, WHO

3,330,000

 

Total

22,261,803

Previous programmes:

Children, Food Security and Nutrition was one of eight MDG-F thematic windows. The goal of the MDG-F's work in this area was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger and halt preventable deaths caused by poor nutrition. These initiatives targeted the poorest and most vulnerable, including indigenous communities. Activities ranged from providing low cost nutritional packages to engaging with pregnant and lactating mothers to promote breastfeeding and ensure they are healthy and aware of key nutrition issues. Promoting food security and advocating for mainstreaming children's rights to food into national plans and policies are also key elements in our fight against under nutrition.

 

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The global prevalence of malnutrition and hunger remains unacceptable,
undermining the prospects of millions.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The global prevalence of malnutrition and hunger remains unacceptable,
undermining the prospects of millions.

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 6 [uid] => 1 [filename] => Guinea-Bissau-Food-Security.jpg [uri] => public://Guinea-Bissau-Food-Security.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 200372 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1200 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1200 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => area_of_work ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_downloads] => Array ( ) [field_delivering_as_one] => Array ( ) [field_country_entity] => Array ( ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => While agro-chemicals such as pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides are often promoted as inputs that increase agricultural productivity by limiting a range of pre-harvest losses, their use may have negative human health and labor productivity implications. We explore the relationship between agro-chemical use and the value of crop output at the plot level and a range of human health outcomes at the household level using nationally representative panel survey data from four Sub-Saharan African countries where more than ten percent of main season cultivators use agro-chemicals. We find that agro-chemicals use is associated with increased value of harvest, with similar magnitudes across three of the four countries under study, but is also associated with increases in costs associated with human illness, including increased health expenditures related to illness and time lost from work due to sickness in recent past. We motivate our empirical work with a simple dynamic optimization model that clearly shows the role that farmer understanding of these feedbacks can play in optimizing the use of agro-chemicals. The central role of information in determining that optimum underscores the role of agricultural and public health extension as modern input intensification proceeds in the region. [format] => [safe_value] => While agro-chemicals such as pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides are often promoted as inputs that increase agricultural productivity by limiting a range of pre-harvest losses, their use may have negative human health and labor productivity implications. We explore the relationship between agro-chemical use and the value of crop output at the plot level and a range of human health outcomes at the household level using nationally representative panel survey data from four Sub-Saharan African countries where more than ten percent of main season cultivators use agro-chemicals. We find that agro-chemicals use is associated with increased value of harvest, with similar magnitudes across three of the four countries under study, but is also associated with increases in costs associated with human illness, including increased health expenditures related to illness and time lost from work due to sickness in recent past. We motivate our empirical work with a simple dynamic optimization model that clearly shows the role that farmer understanding of these feedbacks can play in optimizing the use of agro-chemicals. 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