Languages

Topbar Menu EN

Publication
Poverty and nutrition: a case study of rural households in Thailand and Viet Nam

Published by: ADB


About

We analyze the link between nutrition and poverty in two Asian countries where monetary-based poverty reduction was especially successful. Thailand and Viet Nam are two emerging market economies where poverty rates are now below 10% and are declining further. Despite this success, it is not clear to what extent it has translated into similar improvements in the nutritional situation of the people, and especially of children. We find that undernutrition continues to be a problem in Viet Nam with child underweight rates of 27% and therefore higher than headcount rates of the $1.25 poverty line. Also, Thailand, after the economic crisis, with 19% of children underweight, is still above the World Health Organization’s threshold. We investigate the factors that influence nutrition outcomes, measured as Z-scores of the weight-for-age indicator, by using Tobit regressions for four different groups of children, based on income (poor vs. non-poor) and nutrition (underweight vs. non-underweight). We find that poverty and income influence nutrition outcomes, but other factors such as mother’s height, education, migration and sanitation also affect nutrition. Coefficients of respective variables differ by poverty status. Our conclusion that non-monetary factors matter to reduce undernutrition, and, therefore, monetary poverty reduction is not a sufficient condition, is further underlined by a prediction of future undernutrition rates based on regressions. Also, we find that, even under the assumption of high growth, income growth alone will not be able to reduce undernutrition to a level of low severity until the year 2030.

View online / download

External Link

Links to external publications on the SDG Library are being provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by the SDG Fund or the UN of any of the products, services or opinions of the corporation, organization or individual. The SDG Fund or the UN bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of the external site or for that of subsequent links. Contact the external site for answers to questions regarding its content.


General Information

SDGs Goal 1: No poverty Goal 2: Zero hunger
Published
2016
Thematic Area
Inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication
Food security and nutrition
Array ( [#theme] => field [#weight] => 0 [#title] => External Link URL [#access] => 1 [#label_display] => hidden [#view_mode] => full [#language] => und [#field_name] => field_external_link [#field_type] => text [#field_translatable] => 0 [#entity_type] => node [#bundle] => publication [#object] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 3470 [uid] => 1990 [title] => Poverty and nutrition: a case study of rural households in Thailand and Viet Nam [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 1329 [type] => publication [language] => en [created] => 1482574660 [changed] => 1488958700 [tnid] => 0 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1488958700 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_sdgs] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 221 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5467 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 1: No poverty [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 221 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450137029 [changed] => 1517947204 [tnid] => 221 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517947204 [revision_uid] => 7 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 285 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-01.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-01.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 66160 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137029 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty has dropped by more than half – from 1.9 billion in 1990, to 836 million in 2015 – too many people are still struggling to meet the most basic human needs.

Globally, more than 800 million people are still living on less than $1.25 a day; many lack access to adequate food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid economic growth in countries like China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are disproportionately affected; they are more likely to live in poverty due to unequal access to paid work, education and property.

Progress has also been limited in other regions, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which account for 80 percent of the people living in extreme poverty. This rate is expected to rise due to new threats brought on by climate change, conflict and food insecurity.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. In order to achieve the SDGs, we must target those living in vulnerable situations, increasing access to basic resources and services, and support communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.

Ending poverty is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 1.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty has dropped by more than half – from 1.9 billion in 1990, to 836 million in 2015 – too many people are still struggling to meet the most basic human needs.

Globally, more than 800 million people are still living on less than $1.25 a day; many lack access to adequate food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid economic growth in countries like China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are disproportionately affected; they are more likely to live in poverty due to unequal access to paid work, education and property.

Progress has also been limited in other regions, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which account for 80 percent of the people living in extreme poverty. This rate is expected to rise due to new threats brought on by climate change, conflict and food insecurity.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. In order to achieve the SDGs, we must target those living in vulnerable situations, increasing access to basic resources and services, and support communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.

Ending poverty is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 1.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 1 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 1 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 286 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-01.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-01.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 80247 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137029 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle poverty from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example,

  • In Bangladesh, women are often employed at the lower end of the productivity scale. The labor force participation of rural women is only 36.4% compared to 83.3% of men. Creating employment and income generating opportunities for women and enhancing their access to social protection is helping reduce their poverty and vulnerability. The SDG Fund’s programme is working in the Kurigram district in the Northwest and the Satkhira district in the coastal belt, both regions that are strongly affected by seasonal hunger and extreme poverty. More than 2,500 women have been employed through the programme and were able to open individual savings banking accounts.
  • In Côte d'Ivoire, the SDG Fund is working to reduce poverty by creating economic and job opportunities in the San Pedro region, particularly for women and youth. An integrated approach including training, engaging with the government and other leaders on reforming rural land tenure practices, and creating new income generating activities. The programme is helping increase vulnerable groups' access to information about their rights and providing them with legal assistance. The programme also focuses on ensuring food security and improving nutrition in the poorest households.
  • In Honduras, the SDG Fund supports the revitalization of the Lenca culture and micro-businesses led by women and youth. In the Lenca region, the SDG Fund backs training, business articulation, sustainable tourism promotion and international investment.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle poverty from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example,

  • In Bangladesh, women are often employed at the lower end of the productivity scale. The labor force participation of rural women is only 36.4% compared to 83.3% of men. Creating employment and income generating opportunities for women and enhancing their access to social protection is helping reduce their poverty and vulnerability. The SDG Fund’s programme is working in the Kurigram district in the Northwest and the Satkhira district in the coastal belt, both regions that are strongly affected by seasonal hunger and extreme poverty. More than 2,500 women have been employed through the programme and were able to open individual savings banking accounts.
  • In Côte d'Ivoire, the SDG Fund is working to reduce poverty by creating economic and job opportunities in the San Pedro region, particularly for women and youth. An integrated approach including training, engaging with the government and other leaders on reforming rural land tenure practices, and creating new income generating activities. The programme is helping increase vulnerable groups' access to information about their rights and providing them with legal assistance. The programme also focuses on ensuring food security and improving nutrition in the poorest households.
  • In Honduras, the SDG Fund supports the revitalization of the Lenca culture and micro-businesses led by women and youth. In the Lenca region, the SDG Fund backs training, business articulation, sustainable tourism promotion and international investment.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
  • By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
  • Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
  • By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
  • By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
  • Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
  • By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
  • Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
  • By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
  • By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
  • Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 1 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 1 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [1] => Array ( [target_id] => 223 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5469 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 2: Zero hunger [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 223 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450137275 [changed] => 1517561646 [tnid] => 223 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517561646 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 288 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-02.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-02.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 45720 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137275 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity over the past two decades has seen the proportion of undernourished people drop by almost half.

Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.

These are all significant achievements in reaching the targets set out by the first Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. 795 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2014, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and loss of biodiversity. Over 90 million children under the age of five are dangerously underweight. And one person in every four still goes hungry in Africa.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people – especially children and the more vulnerable – have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural practices: improving the livelihoods and capacities of small scale famers, allowing equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

Together with the other goals set out here, we can end hunger by 2030.

Zero Hunger is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 2.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity over the past two decades has seen the proportion of undernourished people drop by almost half.

Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.

These are all significant achievements in reaching the targets set out by the first Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. 795 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2014, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and loss of biodiversity. Over 90 million children under the age of five are dangerously underweight. And one person in every four still goes hungry in Africa.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people – especially children and the more vulnerable – have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural practices: improving the livelihoods and capacities of small scale famers, allowing equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

Together with the other goals set out here, we can end hunger by 2030.

Zero Hunger is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 2.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 2 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 2 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 289 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-02.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-02.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 60460 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137275 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food. The SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  • Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  • Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • In Ecuador’s Imbabura region, the SDG Fund joint programme is putting into practice an integrated approach to tackle some of the most pressing challenges in the country: building income opportunities for the small farmer-owned production units, overhauling the country’s local food production for better access to safe, affordable and nutritious food and fighting malnutrition and anemia.
  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme is increasing access to health services and promoting women-owned micro-businesses to reduce the high rates of under nutrition and obesity.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using surveys to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment on food security and nutrition. With the support of the National Nutrition Council, the programme is working with the government to take well-informed decisions on targeting the appropriate recipients and in promoting micronutrient rich foods. The programme is working to empower women and to influence behavior changes in children.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food. The SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  • Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  • Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • In Ecuador’s Imbabura region, the SDG Fund joint programme is putting into practice an integrated approach to tackle some of the most pressing challenges in the country: building income opportunities for the small farmer-owned production units, overhauling the country’s local food production for better access to safe, affordable and nutritious food and fighting malnutrition and anemia.
  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme is increasing access to health services and promoting women-owned micro-businesses to reduce the high rates of under nutrition and obesity.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using surveys to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment on food security and nutrition. With the support of the National Nutrition Council, the programme is working with the government to take well-informed decisions on targeting the appropriate recipients and in promoting micronutrient rich foods. The programme is working to empower women and to influence behavior changes in children.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
  • By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
  • By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
  • By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
  • Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
  • Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
  • Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
  • By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
  • By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
  • By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
  • Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
  • Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
  • Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 2 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 2 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_thematic_area] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 53 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 4669 [uid] => 1 [title] => Inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 53 [type] => thematic_area [language] => en [created] => 1421393540 [changed] => 1499981169 [tnid] => 53 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1499981169 [revision_uid] => 1 [body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights.

Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all. This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post-2015 agenda.

A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:

  • Skills development
  • Supportive policies towards micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • The capacity to innovate and absorb new technologies
  • The ability to produce a higher quality and greater range of products
  • Infrastructure and other investments

Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. Business wants a level playing field and to be connected to major markets. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption.

Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, the SDG Fund will work with mineral extractive industries to generate economic growth and opportunities for the whole population. For example, in Mozambique, analysis indicates that the 5 largest projects in the country with an invesment of USD $3.4 billion, will generate only 33,000 direct jobs.
  • In Bangladesh and in Tanzania, the SDG Fund will contribute to the construction of the social protection systems and universal social safety nets, with special attention to the poorest women.
  • In Honduras the SDG-F will support the generation of income through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • The armed conflict in Colombia has damaged production, institutions, food security, and social trust. Through the sustainable agricultural production of indigenous crops and their international commercialization, the SDG-F will create employment, ways of life, better nutrition, and, most importantly, peace in Cauca - one of the zones most affected by the long lasting conflict.
  • In Peru the SDG Fund will contribute to establishing an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increase of demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.



Current SDG Fund inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BangladeshStrengthening Women’s Ability for Productive New Opportunities (SWAPNO)UNDP,  ILO

4,613,000

ColombiaProductive and food secured territories for a peaceful and resilient population in strategic ecosystems in CaucaUNDP, UN Women, FAO, WFP

3,281,152

EthiopiaGender Equality and Women Empowerment - Rural Women Economic EmpowermentUN Women, FAO, IFAD, WFP

3,000,000

HondurasPromotion of Culture and Tourism for Local Development in Ruta LencaUNDP, UN Women

2,919,427

Côte d'Ivoire

Poverty reduction in San Pedro region

UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, UNFPA

3,310,000

MozambiqueMore and better jobs in Cabo Delgado province and Nampula province - Harnessing the opportunities of the New Economy in MozambiqueILO, UNDP, UNIDO, UN Women

3,000,000

occupied Palestinian territoryCreating one-stop-shop to create sustainable businesses” on Inclusive Economic Growth.UN Women, FAO, ITC

3,000,000

Peru

Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development of Andean Grain producers in rural areas of extreme poverty in Ayacucho and PunoILO, FAO, UNESCO

3,880,790

Sierra LeoneEnabling Sustainable Livelihoods Through Improved Natural Resource Governance and Economic Diversification in the Kono District, Sierra LeoneUNDP, FAO

3,002,000

TanzaniaJoint programme to support Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN)UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, ILO

4,358,250

 

Total

34,364,619

Previous programmes:

Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods. Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. 

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights.

Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all. This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post-2015 agenda.

A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:

  • Skills development
  • Supportive policies towards micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • The capacity to innovate and absorb new technologies
  • The ability to produce a higher quality and greater range of products
  • Infrastructure and other investments

Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. Business wants a level playing field and to be connected to major markets. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption.

Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, the SDG Fund will work with mineral extractive industries to generate economic growth and opportunities for the whole population. For example, in Mozambique, analysis indicates that the 5 largest projects in the country with an invesment of USD $3.4 billion, will generate only 33,000 direct jobs.
  • In Bangladesh and in Tanzania, the SDG Fund will contribute to the construction of the social protection systems and universal social safety nets, with special attention to the poorest women.
  • In Honduras the SDG-F will support the generation of income through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • The armed conflict in Colombia has damaged production, institutions, food security, and social trust. Through the sustainable agricultural production of indigenous crops and their international commercialization, the SDG-F will create employment, ways of life, better nutrition, and, most importantly, peace in Cauca - one of the zones most affected by the long lasting conflict.
  • In Peru the SDG Fund will contribute to establishing an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increase of demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.

Current SDG Fund inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BangladeshStrengthening Women’s Ability for Productive New Opportunities (SWAPNO)UNDP,  ILO

4,613,000

ColombiaProductive and food secured territories for a peaceful and resilient population in strategic ecosystems in CaucaUNDP, UN Women, FAO, WFP

3,281,152

EthiopiaGender Equality and Women Empowerment - Rural Women Economic EmpowermentUN Women, FAO, IFAD, WFP

3,000,000

HondurasPromotion of Culture and Tourism for Local Development in Ruta LencaUNDP, UN Women

2,919,427

Côte d'Ivoire

Poverty reduction in San Pedro region

UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, UNFPA

3,310,000

MozambiqueMore and better jobs in Cabo Delgado province and Nampula province - Harnessing the opportunities of the New Economy in MozambiqueILO, UNDP, UNIDO, UN Women

3,000,000

occupied Palestinian territoryCreating one-stop-shop to create sustainable businesses” on Inclusive Economic Growth.UN Women, FAO, ITC

3,000,000

Peru

Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development of Andean Grain producers in rural areas of extreme poverty in Ayacucho and PunoILO, FAO, UNESCO

3,880,790

Sierra LeoneEnabling Sustainable Livelihoods Through Improved Natural Resource Governance and Economic Diversification in the Kono District, Sierra LeoneUNDP, FAO

3,002,000

TanzaniaJoint programme to support Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN)UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, ILO

4,358,250

 

Total

34,364,619

Previous programmes:

Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods. Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. 

[safe_summary] => ) ) ) [field_short_description] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Creating decent jobs, secure livelihoods and promoting inclusive sustainable practices. [format] => [safe_value] => Creating decent jobs, secure livelihoods and promoting inclusive sustainable practices. ) ) ) [field_icon_class] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => fa fa-line-chart [format] => [safe_value] => fa fa-line-chart ) ) ) [field_subtitle] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication.
Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication. Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 5 [uid] => 1 [filename] => boosting-rural-incomes-in-vietnam.jpg [uri] => public://boosting-rural-incomes-in-vietnam.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 125480 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1065 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1065 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => area_of_work ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [1] => Array ( [target_id] => 54 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 4673 [uid] => 1 [title] => Food security and nutrition [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 54 [type] => thematic_area [language] => en [created] => 1421393701 [changed] => 1499981303 [tnid] => 54 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1499981303 [revision_uid] => 1 [body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food.

Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years.

There is no magic bullet that can eliminate hunger and under-nutrition, given the complex nature of these problems. There are many inter-related issues, some of which are related to poverty and lack of empowerment. These include gender issues, discrimination against ethnic groups, land use, rights and ownership, war, the HIV pandemic, and environmental issues. Food solutions need to be integrated and multifaceted.

Efforts to realise the “right to adequate food” must go beyond improving the production and distribution of nutritious food. “Safety nets” should systematically include or be accompanied by measures to promote sustainable livelihoods for households with malnourished children.

Adequate feeding and care should be an integral part of national strategies and programmes to reduce hunger and undernutrition. This includes promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding, basic requirements for nutritional well being.

The SDG Fund response

Under the Food Security and Nutrition area, the SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  2. Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  3. Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme will increase access to health services and promote women-owned food micro-businesses.
  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund will work in 4 municipalities to increase the participation of children, youth, women and men in food security local governance mechanisms. These include citizen monitoring of health services, promoting the empowerment and participation of local leaders, especially women, and strengthening public local institutions.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.

 

Current SDG Fund food security and nutrition programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BoliviaImproving the nutritional status of children from the strengthening of local production systemsFAO, UNICEF, UNIDO

1,800,000

EcuadorStrengthening local food systems and capacity building aimed at improving the production of and  access to safe food for familiesFAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO

3,027,284

El SalvadorFood, Security and Nutrition for Children and Salvadoran Households (SANNHOS)FAO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP

4,226,164

GuatemalaFood and Nutrition Security Prioritized Municipalities of the Department of San MarcosWHO, FAO, UNICEF, WFP

3,867,712

ParaguayParaguay protects, promotes, and facilitates effective implementation of the right to Food Security and Nutrition in prioritized vulnerable populationsWHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP

3,000,000

Sri LankaScaling up nutrition through a multi-sector approachWFP, FAO

3,010,643

Viet NamJoint Programme on Integrated Nutrition and Food Security Strategies for Children and Vulnerable Groups in Viet NamFAO, UNICEF, WHO

3,330,000

 

Total

22,261,803

Previous programmes:

Children, Food Security and Nutrition was one of eight MDG-F thematic windows. The goal of the MDG-F's work in this area was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger and halt preventable deaths caused by poor nutrition. These initiatives targeted the poorest and most vulnerable, including indigenous communities. Activities ranged from providing low cost nutritional packages to engaging with pregnant and lactating mothers to promote breastfeeding and ensure they are healthy and aware of key nutrition issues. Promoting food security and advocating for mainstreaming children's rights to food into national plans and policies are also key elements in our fight against under nutrition.

 

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Underlying the food and nutrition situation are multiple challenges in achieving sustainable food production. A rapidly growing population is increasing the demand for food.

Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years.

There is no magic bullet that can eliminate hunger and under-nutrition, given the complex nature of these problems. There are many inter-related issues, some of which are related to poverty and lack of empowerment. These include gender issues, discrimination against ethnic groups, land use, rights and ownership, war, the HIV pandemic, and environmental issues. Food solutions need to be integrated and multifaceted.

Efforts to realise the “right to adequate food” must go beyond improving the production and distribution of nutritious food. “Safety nets” should systematically include or be accompanied by measures to promote sustainable livelihoods for households with malnourished children.

Adequate feeding and care should be an integral part of national strategies and programmes to reduce hunger and undernutrition. This includes promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding, basic requirements for nutritional well being.

The SDG Fund response

Under the Food Security and Nutrition area, the SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of integrated approaches for alleviating child hunger and under-nutrition
  2. Promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households, especially in the context of adaptation to climate change
  3. Strengthening of capacities to generate information allowing for improved policy-making and advocacy.

For example:

  • El Salvador’s government is developing new plans and regulations to tackle food security and nutrition among the most vulnerable. By reconsidering the role of women, the programme will increase access to health services and promote women-owned food micro-businesses.
  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund will work in 4 municipalities to increase the participation of children, youth, women and men in food security local governance mechanisms. These include citizen monitoring of health services, promoting the empowerment and participation of local leaders, especially women, and strengthening public local institutions.
  • In Viet Nam, the SDG Fund joint programme operates in 2 provinces with extremely high poverty rates. It focuses on nutrition policies and standards, development of institutional capacity and systems, and evidence generation.

 

Current SDG Fund food security and nutrition programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BoliviaImproving the nutritional status of children from the strengthening of local production systemsFAO, UNICEF, UNIDO

1,800,000

EcuadorStrengthening local food systems and capacity building aimed at improving the production of and  access to safe food for familiesFAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO

3,027,284

El SalvadorFood, Security and Nutrition for Children and Salvadoran Households (SANNHOS)FAO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP

4,226,164

GuatemalaFood and Nutrition Security Prioritized Municipalities of the Department of San MarcosWHO, FAO, UNICEF, WFP

3,867,712

ParaguayParaguay protects, promotes, and facilitates effective implementation of the right to Food Security and Nutrition in prioritized vulnerable populationsWHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP

3,000,000

Sri LankaScaling up nutrition through a multi-sector approachWFP, FAO

3,010,643

Viet NamJoint Programme on Integrated Nutrition and Food Security Strategies for Children and Vulnerable Groups in Viet NamFAO, UNICEF, WHO

3,330,000

 

Total

22,261,803

Previous programmes:

Children, Food Security and Nutrition was one of eight MDG-F thematic windows. The goal of the MDG-F's work in this area was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger and halt preventable deaths caused by poor nutrition. These initiatives targeted the poorest and most vulnerable, including indigenous communities. Activities ranged from providing low cost nutritional packages to engaging with pregnant and lactating mothers to promote breastfeeding and ensure they are healthy and aware of key nutrition issues. Promoting food security and advocating for mainstreaming children's rights to food into national plans and policies are also key elements in our fight against under nutrition.

 

[safe_summary] => ) ) ) [field_short_description] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Reducing hunger and malnutrition with integrated approaches. [format] => [safe_value] => Reducing hunger and malnutrition with integrated approaches. ) ) ) [field_icon_class] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => fa fa-spinner [format] => [safe_value] => fa fa-spinner ) ) ) [field_subtitle] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The global prevalence of malnutrition and hunger remains unacceptable,
undermining the prospects of millions.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The global prevalence of malnutrition and hunger remains unacceptable,
undermining the prospects of millions.

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 6 [uid] => 1 [filename] => Guinea-Bissau-Food-Security.jpg [uri] => public://Guinea-Bissau-Food-Security.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 200372 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1200 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1200 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => area_of_work ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_downloads] => Array ( ) [field_delivering_as_one] => Array ( ) [field_country_entity] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [iso2] => TH [value] => TH [country] => Entity Object ( [entityType:protected] => country [entityInfo:protected] => Array ( [label] => Country [entity class] => Entity [controller class] => EntityAPIControllerExportable [base table] => countries_country [fieldable] => 1 [module] => countries [entity keys] => Array ( [id] => cid [name] => iso2 [label] => name [revision] => [bundle] => ) [bundles] => Array ( [country] => Array ( [label] => Country [admin] => Array ( [path] => admin/config/regional/countries [access arguments] => Array ( [0] => administer site configuration ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) ) [view modes] => Array ( [full] => Array ( [label] => Country [custom settings] => ) [token] => Array ( [label] => Tokens [custom settings] => ) ) [static cache] => 1 [field cache] => 1 [load hook] => country_load [translation] => Array ( ) [base table field types] => Array ( [cid] => serial [iso2] => char [iso3] => char [name] => varchar [official_name] => varchar [numcode] => int [continent] => char [enabled] => int [language] => varchar ) [schema_fields_sql] => Array ( [base table] => Array ( [0] => cid [1] => iso2 [2] => iso3 [3] => name [4] => official_name [5] => numcode [6] => continent [7] => enabled [8] => language ) ) [label callback] => countries_i18n_country_entity_label [token type] => country [configuration] => ) [idKey:protected] => cid [nameKey:protected] => iso2 [statusKey:protected] => status [defaultLabel:protected] => [wrapper:protected] => [cid] => 222 [iso2] => TH [iso3] => THA [name] => Thailand [official_name] => Kingdom of Thailand [numcode] => 764 [continent] => AS [enabled] => 1 [language] => und [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) [safe_value] => Thailand [safe] => Thailand ) [1] => Array ( [iso2] => VN [value] => VN [country] => Entity Object ( [entityType:protected] => country [entityInfo:protected] => Array ( [label] => Country [entity class] => Entity [controller class] => EntityAPIControllerExportable [base table] => countries_country [fieldable] => 1 [module] => countries [entity keys] => Array ( [id] => cid [name] => iso2 [label] => name [revision] => [bundle] => ) [bundles] => Array ( [country] => Array ( [label] => Country [admin] => Array ( [path] => admin/config/regional/countries [access arguments] => Array ( [0] => administer site configuration ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) ) [view modes] => Array ( [full] => Array ( [label] => Country [custom settings] => ) [token] => Array ( [label] => Tokens [custom settings] => ) ) [static cache] => 1 [field cache] => 1 [load hook] => country_load [translation] => Array ( ) [base table field types] => Array ( [cid] => serial [iso2] => char [iso3] => char [name] => varchar [official_name] => varchar [numcode] => int [continent] => char [enabled] => int [language] => varchar ) [schema_fields_sql] => Array ( [base table] => Array ( [0] => cid [1] => iso2 [2] => iso3 [3] => name [4] => official_name [5] => numcode [6] => continent [7] => enabled [8] => language ) ) [label callback] => countries_i18n_country_entity_label [token type] => country [configuration] => ) [idKey:protected] => cid [nameKey:protected] => iso2 [statusKey:protected] => status [defaultLabel:protected] => [wrapper:protected] => [cid] => 243 [iso2] => VN [iso3] => VNM [name] => Vietnam [official_name] => Socialist Republic of Viet Nam [numcode] => 704 [continent] => AS [enabled] => 1 [language] => und [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) [safe_value] => Vietnam [safe] => Vietnam ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => We analyze the link between nutrition and poverty in two Asian countries where monetary-based poverty reduction was especially successful. Thailand and Viet Nam are two emerging market economies where poverty rates are now below 10% and are declining further. Despite this success, it is not clear to what extent it has translated into similar improvements in the nutritional situation of the people, and especially of children. We find that undernutrition continues to be a problem in Viet Nam with child underweight rates of 27% and therefore higher than headcount rates of the $1.25 poverty line. Also, Thailand, after the economic crisis, with 19% of children underweight, is still above the World Health Organization’s threshold. We investigate the factors that influence nutrition outcomes, measured as Z-scores of the weight-for-age indicator, by using Tobit regressions for four different groups of children, based on income (poor vs. non-poor) and nutrition (underweight vs. non-underweight). We find that poverty and income influence nutrition outcomes, but other factors such as mother’s height, education, migration and sanitation also affect nutrition. Coefficients of respective variables differ by poverty status. Our conclusion that non-monetary factors matter to reduce undernutrition, and, therefore, monetary poverty reduction is not a sufficient condition, is further underlined by a prediction of future undernutrition rates based on regressions. Also, we find that, even under the assumption of high growth, income growth alone will not be able to reduce undernutrition to a level of low severity until the year 2030. [format] => [safe_value] => We analyze the link between nutrition and poverty in two Asian countries where monetary-based poverty reduction was especially successful. Thailand and Viet Nam are two emerging market economies where poverty rates are now below 10% and are declining further. Despite this success, it is not clear to what extent it has translated into similar improvements in the nutritional situation of the people, and especially of children. We find that undernutrition continues to be a problem in Viet Nam with child underweight rates of 27% and therefore higher than headcount rates of the $1.25 poverty line. Also, Thailand, after the economic crisis, with 19% of children underweight, is still above the World Health Organization’s threshold. We investigate the factors that influence nutrition outcomes, measured as Z-scores of the weight-for-age indicator, by using Tobit regressions for four different groups of children, based on income (poor vs. non-poor) and nutrition (underweight vs. non-underweight). We find that poverty and income influence nutrition outcomes, but other factors such as mother’s height, education, migration and sanitation also affect nutrition. Coefficients of respective variables differ by poverty status. Our conclusion that non-monetary factors matter to reduce undernutrition, and, therefore, monetary poverty reduction is not a sufficient condition, is further underlined by a prediction of future undernutrition rates based on regressions. Also, we find that, even under the assumption of high growth, income growth alone will not be able to reduce undernutrition to a level of low severity until the year 2030. ) ) ) [field_year] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => 2016-01-01 00:00:00 [timezone] => America/New_York [timezone_db] => America/New_York [date_type] => datetime ) ) ) [field_publication_keywords] => Array ( ) [field_publisher] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => ADB [format] => [safe_value] => ADB ) ) ) [field_region] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 260 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 1020 [uid] => 1 [title] => Asia [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 260 [type] => region [language] => en [created] => 1450896508 [changed] => 1450896508 [tnid] => 260 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1450896508 [revision_uid] => 1 [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_thumb] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 2105 [uid] => 1 [filename] => adbi-wp623-1.jpg [uri] => public://adbi-wp623-1.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 28080 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1488958694 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 841 [width] => 595 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 841 [width] => 595 ) ) ) [field_featured] => Array ( ) [field_file_fr] => Array ( ) [field_file_ar] => Array ( ) [field_file_pt] => Array ( ) [field_file_es] => Array ( ) [field_external_link] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/216006/adbi-wp623.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/216006/adbi-wp623.pdf ) ) ) [field_external_link_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => External Link [format] => [safe_value] => External Link ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => Library Manager 1 [picture] => 0 [data] => a:1:{s:7:"contact";i:0;} [entity_view_prepared] => 1 ) [#items] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/216006/adbi-wp623.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/216006/adbi-wp623.pdf ) ) [#formatter] => text_plain [0] => Array ( [#markup] => https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/216006/adbi-wp623.pdf ) [#description] => Please enter the full URL, e.g. http://www.example.com [#printed] => 1 )