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Financing mechanisms for wastewater and sanitation

This publication is a guide for government and city planners to identify financing mechanisms as they develop their own wastewater and sanitation projects. Case studies culled from various countries provide insight on various financing instrumentalities (subsidies, output-based or performance-based aid, carbon credits, and revolving funds) and financing arrangements (local government–water utility operator and public–private partnership) available to support the sanitation agenda. Financing flowcharts should help planners visualise the flow of funds and identify funding sources, including grants and loans. Examples of financing mechanisms can help cities identify business models they can adopt given their specific circumstances.

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Philippines: management of contingent liabilities arising from public-private partnership projects

With a rapidly expanding public-private partnership (PPP) project portfolio and based on past lessons learned, the government needs to improve management of contingent liabilities arising from the PPP contracts. This study shows that major directions requiring further eff„ort include: 1) better pricing of government guarantees; 2) adoption of methodology for quantification of contingent liabilities, setting prudential limits on PPP contingent liabilities; 3) development of procedures for payment of materialized contingent liabilities from the national budget’s unprogrammed fund; 4) in the medium term, setting up a contingent liabilities fund financed through budget appropriations and contributions of project sponsors.

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The development economics of landlockedness

The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of landlockedness on the development prospects of Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs). In particular the study assesses the impact of landlockedness on the overall development performance of LLDCs on a large number of economic, institutional, and social indicators; empirically estimates the development cost of being landlocked using an econometric approach; and based on the findings, proposes recommendations that can provide a more holistic strategy to the development of LLDCs. The distinctive feature of the econometric approach used is that it does not limit landlockedness to affect income (or economic growth) through its effect on trade. The logic underlying the modelling approach is that landlockedness can affect both economic and non-economic dimensions of development and that these development effects can be transmitted through several channels that include international trade and quality of institutions.

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State of the Least Developed Countries 2016

The current report builds on the first and second editions, which considered the issues of productive capacity building as well as extreme poverty eradication in the least developed countries (LDCs) and the post-2015 development agenda. These reports provided analysis relating to the inclusion of LDC issues in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. This year’s report is dedicated to the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs using synergies with the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA). Part 1 of the report assesses progress towards achieving the goals and targets of the IPoA, particularly in the eight priority areas; reviews efforts towards this end; and identifies challenges ahead. The report argues that enhanced, coordinated and targeted support to the LDCs fulfilling ODA commitments but also going beyond, will remain critical to effectively implementing the IPoA. Part 2 of the report assesses the complementarities of the IPoA and the 2030 Agenda. It maps the goals, targets and actions of the IPoA with the SDGs, focusing on means of implementation. Furthermore it looks at how the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs can be fostered, including its mainstreaming and monitoring and followup. The conclusions and policy recommendations cover the findings in both parts of the report. As the report finds significant synergies between the IPoA and the Agenda 2030 it highlights the importance of leadership and political will and effective global partnership.

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Supporting vulnerable countries on their path to poverty eradication and prosperity

From the General Assembly in 1971 that established the LDC status, to the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, this brochure will highlight the evolution of the different international mandates supporting the UN’s most vulnerable countries, and UNIDO’s intervention within them, taking into account previous achievements and unmet challenges. The brochure concludes with a discussion of the future path for these countries, emphasizing issues that development strategies must address in order to reach their goal of poverty eradication and increased prosperity. Effort is being made to highlight selected UNIDO interventions, however the mentions in this brochure are non-exhaustive.

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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: achieving the industry-related goals and targets

UNIDO’s vision to address today’s economic, social and environmental challenges is enshrined in the Lima Declaration, which was adopted by UNIDO Member States in December 2013. On this basis, the Organization pursues Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (ISID) to harness industry’s full potential to contribute to lasting prosperity for all. The mandate is based on the recognition by Member States that poverty eradication “can only be achieved through strong, inclusive, sustainable and resilient economic and industrial growth, and the effective integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.” The present document summarizes the contribution of UNIDO’s mandate as well as current and planned future activities vis-à-vis the SDGs, with a special focus on SDG-9, which highlights and affirms the critical importance of ISID and its contribution to all 17 goals.

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MDG Gap Task Force Report 2015: taking stock of the global partnership for development

This report of the United Nations MDG Gap Task Force monitors the recent achievements and challenges in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goal 8, while looking ahead towards the new sustainable development agenda. Key report findings reveal official development assistance flows have increased remarkably by 66 per cent from 2000 to 2014. In merchandise exports, developing countries’ access to developed-country markets has improved from 30.5 to 43.8 per cent over the same period. Debt burdens have been reduced in most highly indebted poor countries. Mobile phone penetration in developing countries is estimated to reach 92 per cent at the end of 2015, compared to less than 10 per cent in 2000. Nevertheless, the Report also finds that major gaps persist in development aid flows to the least developed countries and in eliminating trade barriers for developing countries. Additionally, many people cannot access essential medicines and the Internet at affordable prices.

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Investment by TNCs and gender: preliminary assessment and way forward

Through their activities in foreign direct investment (FDI) -- trade, non-equity modalities and business relationships with local suppliers -- transnational corporations (TNCs) have significant gender-specific impacts in developing countries. This report is a preliminary assessment of this impact. It focuses mainly on gender equality, spanning the wage and employment impact of TNCs, and the related potential for women's empowerment. Based on the analysis presented, the report proposes three key policy recommendations for governments.

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The business of BioTrade: using biological resources sustainably and responsibly

BioTrade refers to the collection, production, transformation, and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity (species and ecosystems) under the criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability. To give fuller meaning to this concept, UNCTAD, together with international partners and practitioners at country level, has defined seven BioTrade principles. This informational paper explores how the efforts of the BioTrade Initiative provide incentives for business to conserve biodiversity through using biological resources sustainably and responsibly. Through a review and assessment of distinct case studies, it identifies the actual, practical, bottom-up incentives generated by BioTrade partners and practitioners.

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Investment guide to the Silk Road

In 2013 the World Bank identified the Silk Road countries as one of the regions that has made the most progress in improving the ease of doing business. A network of investment treaties and double taxation agreements also signals the increasing openness of the region to international investment. This guide provides potential investors with information on the Silk Road to illustrate the various investment opportunities in Central Asia, and familiarize themselves with the region. Chapter I introduces the region and individual economies, and summarizes the extensive history of the Silk Road, from its ancient prosperity to its current revival. Chapter II provides the reader with information about the economic conditions of each country and the region as a whole. Chapter III outlines investment opportunities in selected sectors in the Silk Road countries. The Appendices provide brief overviews of the investment regulatory framework in each of the Silk Road countries.

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Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Lesotho? A gender perspective

Though important gender gaps persist in a number of critical areas, the experience of Lesotho highlights that the political resolve to promote gender equality is not, and should not be, a monopoly of high-income countries. Even those countries qualified as least developed countries (LDCs) can ambitiously adopt and implement strategies and policies aimed at reducing gender-based disparities. The Lesotho case study highlights the multifaceted relationship between trade policy on the one hand, structural changes and productive transformation on the other, and their repercussions on patterns of employment for men and women. In particular, the rise – and subsequent relative decline – of Lesotho as a major apparel exporter to the United States illustrates clearly the strong correlation between trade policy, structural change in the economy, and shifting gender patterns.

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Non-tariff measures to trade: economic and policy issues for developing countries

This study contributes to a better understanding of the implications of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) for developing countries in two regards. First, it provides an analysis of the utilization, methods of quantification and impacts of NTMs. These issues are discussed in sections I, II and III. Secondly, the study also illustrates some aspects of NTMs and the policy responses Governments and the international community might deploy to address some of the issues related to NTMs. These issues are presented in sections IV, V and VI. As a whole, this study brings two main messages to trade analysts and policymakers in regard to NTMs. The first is that, given their importance but the still limited understanding of them, further research and analysis are required. The second is that a multilateral policymaking process, although difficult, is critical to minimizing their distortionary and discriminatory effects.

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The way to the ocean: transit corridors servicing the trade of landlocked developing countries

The present paper looks at selected East African transit corridors which provide access to seaports as gateways to link landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) with overseas trading partners. The report suggests three complementary courses of action to improve transit transport efficiency and sustainability: 1) Building institutional capacity through corridor management arrangements, including formal agreements, where and as appropriate; 2) Improving the reliability and predictability of transit operations by trust-building measures between public regulators and private operators, such as risk-management customs systems, which allow for fewer en route checks, shorter delays and smaller convoys; 3) Developing and operating transport nodes, or freight hubs, with a particular focus on the consolidation of small flows, to create critical masses required to achieve economies of scale, higher return on investment on both infrastructure and transport services, and lead to the development of effective intermodal transit operations.

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Trade remedies: targeting the renewable energy sector

The study and the meeting are part of a larger effort by UNCTAD to analyse issues arising at the interface of trade policy and green economy, more specifically renewables, which is shorthand for goods and services used in conjunction with renewable energy sources. There can be little doubt that trade remedies are a sensitive area. Trade remedies may have a significant effect on value and job creation throughout the supply chain as a whole. Trade remedies are bound to have competitive implications. Trade remedies against renewables provide a counterpoint to the initiative to reduce tariffs on environmental goods, particularly since some of the most active users of trade remedies participate in the initiative. Trade remedies shatter the alliances among interest groups. On the dispute settlement front, clearly what we see there is disputes on trade remedies that happen to involve renewables rather than disputes about renewables that happen to involve trade remedies. These disputes are about how trade remedies work and in many ways are a continuation of discussion and negotiations that have been going on for the past 12 -13 years about issues such as public interest test, lesser duty etc., which suddenly become relevant again in the context of renewables. The study is far from an exhaustive examination of these issues, of course. In many areas, the analysis is speculative, aimed at raising questions and suggesting areas where policy makers and analysts may need to consider undertaking further analysis.

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Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Angola? A gender perspective

The study seeks to explore the impacts of Angola's integration into the world economy mainly as an oil exporter, and in particular, to analyse whether there is a gender bias in the effects of trade. The findings suggest that the extractive nature of Angola's economy has significantly constrained its diversification potential, and has limited the development of productive activities that could absorb the female workforce and provide women with decent incomes. Moreover, a defining characteristic of the Angolan labour market is the size of the informal sector, which is proportionately one of the largest in the developing world. This sector provides the main occupation for 70 per cent of the female population in the country. This UNCTAD study takes a close look at the role of women in Angola's economy and society as it attempts to answer the following questions: What strategies could be put in place to address the potential exclusionary effects of Angola's trade liberalization? How can women take advantage of the positive spillovers from Angola's extractive economy and ultimately benefit from trade? What kind of sectoral policies can be promoted in order to generate new opportunities for women and have them benefit more from the booming economy?

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Trade policy framework: Jamaica

The ongoing review of Jamaica’s trade policy is motivated by the Government’s assessment that the country’ trade has underperformed over the last 20 years. This underperformance is characterized by limited export growth and increased imports, as well as continued dependence on a few export products that have lost competitiveness in recent times and developed country markets that have been greatly affected by the financial crisis.This Trade Policy Framework was prepared at the request of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. It provides a review of the country’s overall national development objectives and recent economic trends, an analysis of linkages between existing strategies and plans in different spheres of policymaking and trade policy in both the goods and services sectors, and recommendations for integrated strategic approaches to achieving the country’s key vision and objectives for its trade policy.

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Closing the distance: partnerships for sustainable and resilient transport systems in Small Island Developing States

This report informs about the maritime transport situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and underscores the strategic importance of this economic sector for SIDS economies and communities. It provides an overview of the maritime transport situation in SIDS and presents data on relevant aspects, including shipping connectivity levels, direct and indirect shipping services, port issues, as well as trade structure and patterns. Relevant cross-cutting concerns such as SIDS high dependency on fossil fuel energy imports, exposure to climate change impacts and natural disasters as well as financial and human capacity constraints are also addressed. The report points to relevant opportunities which could be capitalised upon to support SIDS sustainable development and “blue growth”. Finally, the report concludes with a number of suggestions and recommendations for the way forward.

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Pan-African cotton road map: a continental strategy to strengthen regional cotton value chains for poverty reduction and food security

The objective of this road map is to create synergies between the numerous interventions in favour of African cotton, and between the different categories of stakeholders at national, regional and international level. As such, it aims to become a complement to what already is in place in the regions by providing a common framework at the Pan-African level that addresses the existing strategies and national and regional policies from a Pan-African perspective. The road map is organized as follows: Part I succinctly describes the background to the Road Map, its link to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals and the translation of these into actions to be conducted; Part II enunciates the Road Map’s various activities based on the outcome of the Cotonou meeting around the three themes: Productivity, Marketing and Value-addition. This part also introduces other proposals, facilitation of the Road Map, its Action Plan and indicators of progress.

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Trade policy framework: Tunisia

This study was undertaken upon the request of the Government of Tunisia to assist the country in evaluating whether it should become a participant in the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) of the World Trade Organization. The study looks at: 1) The revenue effects of eliminating import tariffs on all IT products under the product coverage of the ITA; 2) Whether becoming a participant in the ITA will contribute towards achieving the overall objective of the Government to attract greater FDI into the country, in particular the IT sector, through elimination of import tariffs on all IT products and binding other duties and charges at zero for those products that fall under the product coverage of the ITA; 3) The economy-wide implications of becoming a participant in the ITA, through a linkage analysis to gauge whether establishment of an IT sector in Tunisia might have strong backward and forward linkages with other sectors of the economy and thus boost their growth and expansion as well; 4) Complementary measures and/or policies that should be adopted by the Government to further encourage the growth and expansion of the IT sector through both FDI and domestic direct investment.

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Tracing the value-added in global value chains: product-level case studies in China

Three product-level case studies were conducted to identify where China is placed within the GVCs and to find out what and to what extent value is added in China. The three case studies relate to rubber tyres, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and fasteners. They reveal that the selected industries are based mostly on mid-level technologies, and that China is generally in the midstream of the GVC with its comparative advantage in labour cost vis-à-vis its developed trading partners. The publication concludes with lessons learnt from the case studies and a set of policy recommendations.

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Facilitating the participation of landlocked developing countries in commodity value chains

Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) face multiple trade and development challenges. In addition to their geographical predicaments and remoteness from international markets, most of these countries are commodity dependent. The present study argues that despite the challenges, the case for diversification and structural economic transformation remains more persuasive for LLDCs today than ever before. Empirical and historical evidence suggests that diversification, value addition and retention are key to attaining overall development objectives. The study also underscores the importance of joining regional and global commodity value chains and the urgency for those countries to take advantage of their natural resources wealth by enacting sound development polices and strategies that put productive capacities and structural economic transformation at the centre.

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Enhancing linkages between tourism and the sustainable agriculture sectors in the United Republic of Tanzania

The United Republic of Tanzania has vast untapped natural resources, including an abundance of wildlife, unexploited mineral reserves and arable land, which offer a wide range of development opportunities. Tourism and agriculture are important contributors to the development of the local economy. The main objective of this report is to enhance the understanding of linkages between these two sectors, as well as propose suggestions for how they could be strengthened with the aim of promoting bottom-up sustainable development in the United Republic of Tanzania. In order to promote sustainable development, this report proposes a set of potential thematic strategies that can be used as stepping-stones for building an institutional framework able to link the tourism and agriculture sectors at multiple levels – country, regional, local and community.

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Developing business linkages for green affordable housing in Zambia

This report investigates the potential for building business linkages between micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the construction industry in Zambia and large domestic and international companies and investors. It adopts a step-by-step methodology, taking international firms and property developers through the full process of doing business in the low and middle income housing sector in Zambia – highlighting opportunities to partner with local MSMEs and others stakeholders. Partnerships are vitally important at all levels and they have a crucial role to play in capacity building and creating sustainable employment which also align with the aims of the Zambia Green Jobs Programme. From the outset it is understandable that there is no “one-size fits all” approach which can be taken; a number of innovative business solutions already operating in other developing countries offer considerable potential for Zambia. The four short case studies presented in the report, illustrate different but successful approaches taken to the provision of affordable housing, with particular reference to low and middle income affordable housing solutions.

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Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Uruguay? A gender perspective

This report aims to assess the implications of Uruguay’s productive transformation, trade liberalization, and regional trade integration on women, especially in terms of their access to employment. The report encourages the reader to take into account the complexities of the trade and gender link and its numerous, and sometimes hidden, connections with the micro and macro components of economic and development processes. The research also highlights that Uruguay’s legal framework as well as social norms and stereotypes contribute to the role that women play in the labour market and society. The long-term approach of the study, covering three decades of economic and social reforms, provides the basis for anticipating the role that the female workforce may play in Uruguay in the decades ahead.

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Global value chains and South-South trade

Building on previous UNCTAD research, this study examines trends and patterns of South-South trade over the last decade linked to Global Value Chains (GVCs). Its findings confirm much of the earlier analysis. However, there are some new, or at least more visible, trends that have emerged over the last decade and have impacted international production and South-South trade, including the growing influence of financial markets on the real economy (“financialization”), and the emergence of China as the world`s leading export economy. There has also been strong growth performance across the developing world, which began after the recovery from the dot-com crisis of 2000, and continued after the financial crisis of 2008, albeit at a slower rate than prior to the crisis. The study begins with an analysis of the links between trade, industrialization and the evolving international division of labour. Contrary to much recent analysis it emphasises the long-standing nature of the economic forces behind GVCs and the familiarity of the challenges they pose to policy makers in the South. This is followed by a discussion of some of the main changes in the global trading system over the past three decades, in particular the growing participation of developing countries in world trade, the shift in the composition of their trade from primary products to manufactures, and the rise of South-South trade both as a share of developing country and world trade. These three features are connected, in no small part, through the spread of GVCs. The next three sections examine in turn recent trends in global production sharing, the value added by different countries in GVCs, the contribution of GVCs to rising South-South trade, and the role of FDI in spreading international production and its development impact. A final section summarizes the key findings and draws policy implications.

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