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Southeast Asia and the economics of global climate stabilization

South-east Asia is likely to sustain larger economic losses from climate change than most other areas in the world. Moreover, those losses—the collective effect of impacts on agriculture, tourism, energy demand, labour productivity, catastrophic risks, health, and ecosystems—may be larger than previously estimated. When these loss estimates are considered simultaneously in the modelling, gross domestic product (GDP) is found to be reduced by 11% in 2100 under the business as usual emissions scenario of this study, which is 60% higher than the earlier ADB assessment. Climate change is a global concern of special relevance to South-east Asia, a region that is both vulnerable to the effects of climate change and a rapidly increasing emitter of greenhouse gases. From 1990 to 2010, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in South-east Asia have grown more rapidly than in any other region of the world.

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Toward a national eco-compensation regulation in the People’s Republic of China

The People’s Republic of China practices “eco-compensation” to promote environmental protection and restoration. This study examines the theory, practice, and legislation governing this in selected ecological areas. ADB and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) undertook a study on eco-compensation regulations development in the country. The study examined the PRC’s theory, practice, and legislation governing eco-compensation in selected ecological areas to map out the scope and content of a national eco-compensation regulation. Pursuit of its higher agenda of ecological civilization and development of its national eco-compensation regulation will require the PRC to capture the diversity that subnational projects have tapped, integrate its experience with eco-compensation at all levels of government into a coherent national regulatory framework, and harmonize this framework with existing laws and other legal instruments.

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The impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on the development prospects of Landlocked Developing Countries

This study seeks to identify Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs)’ priority areas on climate change, land degradation and desertification that could be included in their new development agenda. In order to achieve this objective, the study: (a) provides a comprehensive review of the impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on LLDCs, (b) reviews national, regional and international interventions which have been implemented in LLDCs; (c) identifies best practices, lessons learnt and emerging opportunities and (d) proffers recommendations for inclusion in a new development agenda for LLDCs which will assist them to ameliorate the negative impacts of climate change, desertification and land degradation.

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State of the Least Developed Countries 2016

The current report builds on the first and second editions, which considered the issues of productive capacity building as well as extreme poverty eradication in the least developed countries (LDCs) and the post-2015 development agenda. These reports provided analysis relating to the inclusion of LDC issues in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. This year’s report is dedicated to the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs using synergies with the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA). Part 1 of the report assesses progress towards achieving the goals and targets of the IPoA, particularly in the eight priority areas; reviews efforts towards this end; and identifies challenges ahead. The report argues that enhanced, coordinated and targeted support to the LDCs fulfilling ODA commitments but also going beyond, will remain critical to effectively implementing the IPoA. Part 2 of the report assesses the complementarities of the IPoA and the 2030 Agenda. It maps the goals, targets and actions of the IPoA with the SDGs, focusing on means of implementation. Furthermore it looks at how the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs can be fostered, including its mainstreaming and monitoring and followup. The conclusions and policy recommendations cover the findings in both parts of the report. As the report finds significant synergies between the IPoA and the Agenda 2030 it highlights the importance of leadership and political will and effective global partnership.

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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: achieving the industry-related goals and targets

UNIDO’s vision to address today’s economic, social and environmental challenges is enshrined in the Lima Declaration, which was adopted by UNIDO Member States in December 2013. On this basis, the Organization pursues Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (ISID) to harness industry’s full potential to contribute to lasting prosperity for all. The mandate is based on the recognition by Member States that poverty eradication “can only be achieved through strong, inclusive, sustainable and resilient economic and industrial growth, and the effective integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.” The present document summarizes the contribution of UNIDO’s mandate as well as current and planned future activities vis-à-vis the SDGs, with a special focus on SDG-9, which highlights and affirms the critical importance of ISID and its contribution to all 17 goals.

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World wildlife crime report: trafficking in protected species

The need to protect our planet’s flora and fauna from the predations of transnational organized crime has become a major priority for the international community in recent years. The Sustainable Development Goals include specific targets to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by helping local communities to pursue sustainable livelihoods. There is increasing recognition of the dangers wildlife and forest crime pose not only to the environment but to the rule of law and stability, and of the potential for the criminal proceeds to fuel conflict and terrorism. The desperate plight of iconic species at the hands of poachers has deservedly captured the world’s attention, and none too soon. This report, which represents two years of comprehensive research, based on the latest and best available data, seeks to inform and support further urgent action by the international community.

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The business of BioTrade: using biological resources sustainably and responsibly

BioTrade refers to the collection, production, transformation, and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity (species and ecosystems) under the criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability. To give fuller meaning to this concept, UNCTAD, together with international partners and practitioners at country level, has defined seven BioTrade principles. This informational paper explores how the efforts of the BioTrade Initiative provide incentives for business to conserve biodiversity through using biological resources sustainably and responsibly. Through a review and assessment of distinct case studies, it identifies the actual, practical, bottom-up incentives generated by BioTrade partners and practitioners.

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Strengthening the capacity in integrating REDD+ projects into BioTrade strategies in Colombia

Market based mechanisms for climate change mitigation and trade of biodiversity-based products and services offer an opportunity for countries to conserve their forests and invest in low-carbon emission paths to achieve sustainable development. The combination of REDD+ and BioTrade offers additional financial incentives for developing countries to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation while sustainably using and tradings derived products and services such as essential and vegetable oils, and ecotourism, among others. Harnessing these opportunities for developing countries is what UNCTAD aimed to explore and enhance through the project "Strengthening the capacity of policy-makers and business leaders in three BioTrade beneficiary countries in integrating REDD+ projects into BioTrade strategies" in Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil. This report presents the findings of the project in Colombia. It provides an overview of the regulatory framework, initiatives, opportunities and constraints pertaining to the implementation of REDD+ and BioTrade in Colombia. It also analyses the feasibility of linking REDD+ strategies and BioTrade in Colombia and provide recommendations on the way forward.

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Facilitating BioTrade in a challenging access and benefit sharing environment

Legal uncertainty, lack of clarity and administrative inaction are not a good recipe to facilitate sustainable biodiversity businesses. With the entering into force of the CBD Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, there is a new opportunity to improve the synergies for access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) in the context of BioTrade, and in turn contribute to legal certainty on this particularly important matter in regards to sustainable use of biodiversity. Though historically BioTrade has moved in the realm of sustainable biodiversity businesses, particularly with biological resources and certain ecosystem services, questions remain regarding when and how genetic resources become part of BioTrade and most importantly, whether ABS policy and legal frameworks are applicable or not. Implementing the Nagoya Protocol in regards to BioTrade will require guidance as to how BioTrade and ABS positively interact and generate complementarity. When and how ABS requirements may be applicable to BioTrade is key to creating the enabling policy and regulatory environments. This scoping study offers an overview of some of the key issues and connections between BioTrade and ABS under the framework of the Nagoya Protocol, the challenges faced by interested actors and suggestions of ways to address them, including in terms of interpretation, implementing policies and legal reforms. Examples, figures and case studies are used to clarify some of the points raised and suggestions on the way forward.

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Training manual on developing joint BioTrade and REDD+ projects

The present training manual is intended to support the development and implementation of joint BioTrade and REDD+ projects in order to maximize benefits and synergies. It includes a step-by-step project methodology that has been specifically designed for project proponents and developers. The manual also provides policy advisers and other interested stakeholders with key concepts and practical considerations on BioTrade and REDD+, the synergies between the two approaches and the potential for combining them. The content of the manual draws on the experience of the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative in promoting trade and investment in biological resources to further sustainable development. It also integrates Forests Alive’s experience in developing REDD+ projects. Finally, the manual builds on the findings of the project “Strengthening the capacity of policymakers and business leaders in three BioTrade beneficiary countries [Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador] in integrating REDD+ projects into BioTrade strategies” which was formulated and implemented by UNCTAD between 2010 and 2012 under the United Nations Development Account programme.

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Why geographical indications for Least Developed Countries?

Since 2010 UNCTAD is supporting selected LDCs rural communities in their efforts to promote traditional products through Geographical Indications (GIs). GIs are a trade-related intellectual property right under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The link between the territory and the uniqueness of the product is the distinctive developmental nature of GIs with respect to other forms of TRIPs. Evidence from the market and literature shows that the promotion and protection of products under GIs may results in higher economics gains, fostering quality production and equitable distribution of profits for LDC rural communities. GIs encourage the preservation of biodiversity, traditional know-how and natural resources. Leveraging on biological and cultural diversification, the implementation of GIs may represent a unique opportunity to bring together the various players along the value chain supply, including producers, government authorities and researchers.

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The development dimensions of intellectual property in Nepal

UNCTAD originally developed this Report on the development dimension of intellectual property rights (DDIP) in response to a technical assistance request from Nepal. Part 1 of this Report outlines the major framework for intellectual property (IP) policy in Nepal. IP rights have differential impact on countries based on their respective levels of development, with LDCs being in a less advantageous position due to their limited absorptive capacity and technological base, among other limitations. Considering its level of development, IP policy makers in Nepal needs to consider the importance of and the factors that facilitate indigenous learning activities and the adaptation of technologies, through incremental innovation in vital and promising sectors of the economy. Part 2 of the Report recommends a number of legislative, policy and practical steps to facilitate and enable the technological and innovation functions of IP protection. Part 3 of the Report examines the access to medicine regime of Nepal and recommends for Nepal to implement the transition period for the protection of pharmaceutical product patents and pharmaceutical test data that lasts until 2033. Part 4 of the Report analyses Nepal's access and benefit sharing regime, the interface between IP and biodiversity, and options for defensive and positive protection of genetic resources (GRs) and traditional knowledge (TK). The recommendations of this Report on the framework for IP policy in Nepal and on each specific area examined have legislative and institutional dimensions that require capacity building, and, in some cases, additional studies to develop specific action plans for implementation.

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Drinking water, biodiversity and development

This guide addresses the linkages between drinking water, biological diversity and development/poverty alleviation. It aims to raise awareness of sustainable approaches to managing drinking water, which have been tested globally. They demonstrate how biodiversity can be used wisely to help us achieve development goals. The guide will: 1) Introduce the available techniques, technologies and procedures that optimize social and environmental outcomes in the management of drinking water; 2) Introduce good practices to the interface between drinking water, development and biodiversity; 3) Assist Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in strengthening national and sub-national drinking-water development policies, strategies, plans and projects that integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity; and 4) Provide sources and references where readers can find more detailed information.

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Pastoralism, nature conservation and development

This guide addresses the linkages between pastoralism, biodiversity, and development / poverty reduction. It aims to raise awareness of tools relevant to the pastoralism sector, which have demonstrated benefits to biodiversity as well as development. The guide will: 1) Describe the role of pastoralism in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in dry-lands, and the contribution of pastoralism to poverty reduction and development; 2) Introduce public decision-makers to some policy considerations, management tools, market-based instruments, and capacity-building methods that can help augment the social and environmental outcomes of pastoralism; 3) Present good practice examples on the interface between pastoralism, poverty reduction and biodiversity; 4) Assist Parties to the CBD in establishing national and sub-national pastoralism development policies, strategies, plans and projects that consider poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation; 5) Provide sources and references for more detailed information.

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Linking the thematic programmes of work of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to poverty reduction and development

This report describes a consultancy carried out to determine the linkages between the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) thematic Programmes of Work (PoWs) and poverty reduction. It is well understood that the relationship between biodiversity and poverty reduction is complex and has multiple possible pathways, from ‘win-win’ outcomes (reducing poverty improves conservation outcomes), ‘win-neutral’ (conservation has no effect on poverty), ‘trade-offs’ (conservation action hurts the poor or poverty reduction damages biodiversity), or even ‘lose-lose’ situations (poverty increases and biodiversity declines). The major challenge in this regard is that production systems should enhance human well-being, be sustainable in the future without degradation of the natural resource base (biodiversity),while maintaining productivity and being equitably distributed among people, avoiding poverty. This requires an incredibly delicate series of balances. The report offers a series of recommendations and identifies 2 major critical conditions for successful implementation.

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Global Biodiversity Outlook 4: a mid-term assessment of progress towards the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020

Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is a periodic report that summarizes the latest data on the status and trends of biodiversity and draws conclusions relevant to the further implementation of the Convention. The fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook was officially launched on the opening day of the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 12) in Pyeongchang, Korea.

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Establishing a workable follow-up and review process for the Sustainable Development Goals

The Open Working Group document proposes that governments will set its own national targets. They will be guided by the global level of ambition but taking into account national circumstances. To make the Post-2015 agenda actionable, much more thought needs to be given to the process of target-setting, different actors’ responsibilities, implementation and accountability.

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Subsidies to key commodities driving forest loss: implications for private climate finance

There is an increasing focus on the role that public and private resources can play in supporting activities that reduce forest loss as part of wider efforts to address climate change, and ensure sustainable development. From our initial review of subsidies to beef and soy in Brazil, and timber and palm oil in Indonesia we find that there are significant opportunities for REDD+ finance to support identification, estimation and designing the reform of these subsidies - as part of a wider transition to economic development which increases agricultural productivity while avoiding forest loss.

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Mind the gap? A comparison of international and national targets for the SDG agenda

The stretch required for low-income countries (LICs) to achieve SDG targets is generally greater than for middle-income and high-income countries (MICs and HICs). The gaps identified indicate where most work is needed to alter political priorities in order to realise the SDGs. Most hard work will be needed in areas that are highly politically contentious (climate policy) or expensive (secondary education, electricity and sanitation). This has implications for how governments structure a review process and how resources are mobilised for the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. The report also found a great deal of variation in the approach to measuring targets at the national level. A standardised approach would make comparisons easier and hold governments more readily to account.

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Piecing together the MDG puzzle: domestic policy, government spending and performance

Policy-makers in most of the developing countries surveyed report that the MDGs were influential in setting priorities domestically. Analysis of the education and health sectors suggests these statements are not merely tokenistic as countries reporting high influence saw increases in budget allocations. However while many countries experienced increases in government spending in social sectors over the MDG period, the majority still spend less than the recommended international benchmarks. Significant increases in government allocations will therefore be required to match the ambition of the SDGs. Recommendations for the SDG period include ensuring better data on domestic use of targets, government spending and performance are available to better assess their influence over the next 15 years and ensure the 'leave no one behind' agenda will be fulfilled.

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National MDG implementation: lessons for the SDG era

As we approach the deadline for the expiration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the start of the Sustainable Development Goals, at the end of 2015, this paper asks: how did governments respond at the national level to the set of global development goals in the form of the MDGs? Using five case study countries: Indonesia, Turkey, Mexico, Nigeria and Liberia, to reflect a mix of regions, income classifications and MDG performance, the paper draws out common trends and suggests five lessons for the post-2015 era.

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Cultivating climate resilience: the Shea value chain

The economy of Burkina Faso is growing but is seen alongside high levels of poverty and a heavy reliance on the climate-vulnerable agriculture sector. This Working Paper outlines the importance of Shea in Burkina Faso both as a commodity for exporting and in providing subsistence for local communities. Although as a crop it is relatively resilience to a changing climate and is beneficial to the overall resilience of the ecosystem – through maintaining soil fertility and biodiversity of flora and fauna - the Shea tree is considered a vulnerable species, largely at risk from human practices. Measures such as soil and water conservation and management are being adopted to improve Shea tree conservation and management. Research and development focused on domestication and isolation of more adaptable varieties of Shea are being turned into on-the-ground applications. Furthermore, Organic and fair trade certifications sought by international brands in the cosmetic industry contribute to establishing appropriate rules for the safeguard of the resource and biodiversity in general, and the minimisation of negative environmental impacts during the production phases. While Shea production has what it takes to improve the resilience of local communities involved in different stages of the value chain, and measures are in place to reduce the risk of human practices, diversification of the crops cultivated by farmers is essential to ensure climate resistance and resilience of the ecologic and socio-economic system as a whole in Burkina Faso. More broadly, efforts that promote economic diversification are imperative in the light of a national agenda for sustainable development.

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Projecting progress: the SDGs in Latin America and the Caribbean

This paper presents Latin America and the Caribbean’s (LAC) likely progress across the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda, if trends continue on their current trajectories. There are significant disparities across the globe in progress both between and within countries; LAC is no exception. There are a number of disparities across sub-regions and there are disparities within countries – ethnicity, for example, is a crucial factor in determining whether someone is likely to benefit from development gains. During the Millennium Development Goals era considerable gains were made in a number of countries in LAC. However, already strong outcomes in some areas compared with other developing regions will make continued progress towards the new goals difficult.

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AfDB Strategy for 2013–2022 - at the center of Africa’s transformation

This ten-year Strategy is designed to place the African Development Bank at the centre of Africa’s transformation and to improve the quality of Africa’s growth. The Strategy will focus on two objectives to improve the quality of Africa’s growth: inclusive growth, and the transition to green growth. It also outlines five main channels for the Bank to deliver its work and improve the quality of growth in Africa: Infrastructural development; Regional economic integration; Private sector development; Governance and accountability; Skills and technology. In implementing its ten-year Strategy, and as an integral part of the two objectives, the Bank will pay particular attention to fragile states, agriculture and food security, and gender.

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Impact evaluation in a landscape: protected natural forests, anthropized forested lands and deforestation leakages in Madagascar’s rainforests

This paper analyses deforestation leakages from natural rainforests to anthropized habitats following the creation of Protected Areas in Madagascar. A simple theoretical framework highlights that a conservation constraint does not necessarily create deforestation leakages on secondary forests. An original dataset is built combining fine scale vegetation cover images and spatialized census data over the period 2000 to 2012. Cover images allow us to distinguish a mosaic of landscapes. Multilevel panel regressions and matching techniques indicate a causal effect of Protected Areas on deforestation leakages. Though Protected Areas reduce deforestation in protected natural forests, forest clearing is mostly reported on other types of anthropized forests. Our results demonstrate the limitations of Porter-like mechanism in agricultural innovation. They also support the hypothesis of a conservation dilemma: protecting biodiversity may come at the expense of the welfare of locals who rely on local (provisioning) ecosystem services.

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