Social protection has become a more important part of social service delivery in Tanzania over the last couple of decades. This paper analyses the politics behind the making and implementation of the Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN), a cash transfer scheme that became part of a broader, existing scheme aimed at poverty reduction and rural development, TASAF I-III. We trace the interrelationship between the domestic policy process and the shifting influence of transnational ideas. We argue that the introduction of TASAF and later PSSN was strongly influenced by international trends, driven by a policy coalition of bureaucrats and development partners, but that it was sanctioned by the country’s political elites, who at times used the programmes for electoral purposes. This happened for instance by influencing the scale and speed of PSSN’s implementation prior to the national elections in 2015, despite a tradition of scepticism towards cash transfers within the ruling CCM party. Recently, President John Magufuli’s more productivist ethos, emphasising the importance of work, poses a threat to the programmes’ continuation. This may also reduce the targeting of the poorest of the poor, which constitutes a major element of PSSN as we know it.
UNICEF Tanzania’s work in 2017 ranged from generating strategic data and information for policy advocacy and for sharpening programmes to strengthening systems for delivering services to Tanzania’s most disadvantaged children.
This report provides endline results of the impact evaluation of the Government of the Republic of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) on Tanzanian youth. The impact evaluation is an 18-
month, mixed methods study to provide evidence on the effects that the programme has had on youth wellbeing and the transition to adulthood. The study was conducted among a sample of households
comprising part of the 4th and 5th scale-up waves of the PSSN in 2015. For the study we conducted two waves of data collection: a baseline in August – October 2015 and an endline from March – May
2017. In both waves of data collection, quantitative and qualitative interviews were conducted with youth who were between the ages of 14 and 28 years at baseline (15 – 30 years at endline). The
qualitative interviews were embedded into the quantitative study design, meaning that 16 youth from study households were selected to participate in in-depth qualitative interviews to help unpack pathways of impact and provide a deeper understanding of how the PSSN affects the lives of youth in participating households. At endline, households had received on average 10 bi-monthly cash
The Philippines has met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water and has made good progress toward the MDG for sanitation. The human rights to water and sanitation have been recognized by the Philippines since 2009 and they are noted in Republic Act 9710, which focuses on marginalized groups, including women. Section 20.b.5 recognizes that women have equal rights to the “enjoyment, use and management of water” and Section 21 of the Act notes, “The State shall develop housing programs for women that are localized, simple, accessible, with potable water…” Additionally, the Philippines recognizes 14 disadvantaged groups that are specifically targeted for universal access to water and sanitation. These groups include poor populations, people living with disabilities, women, farmers, fishermen, migrant workers and workers in the informal sector.
A key challenge for Latin America and the Caribbean is formalization, considering that half of the region’s workforce – around 130 million people – find themselves in the informal economy, often earning less than the minimum wage and without access to social protection. Through its Regional Programme for the Promotion of Formalization in Latin America and the Caribbean (FORLAC), the ILO has developed several initiatives that have led to legislative and policy changes in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Social actors across the region have also been active on this front. In 2015, for example, the Jamaica Employer’s Federation, with ILO support, adopted a gender-sensitive policy on the transition to formality – with guidance to support its members towards business formalization.
The situation in Mozambique was made more challenging by onset of the worst drought Mozambique has faced in 35 years. In 2016, the drought severely affected 1.5 million people with negative outcomes for food and nutrition security. UNICEF Mozambique provided significant support to the response efforts, leading the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), nutrition, education and protection clusters. Around 23,960 people were provided with access to safe water with five million cubic metres of water and drilled/ upgraded water points in 18 drought- affected districts. Together with the Ministry of Health, UNICEF Mozambique supported training of 36 health and nutrition mobile brigades to undertake community outreach, including screening, referral and treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), screening 118,000 children and treating 15,000 acutely malnourished children.
This report describes the work of UNICEF in Guatemala in 2017. The multiple social and political crises in 2017 resulted in extreme institutional instability (frequent changes of ministers and high-level government officials), social unrest (different demonstrations against the Government and against parliament), and a structural governance crisis (harsh conflicts among the three branches of Government, clash between the Government and the Commissioner of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala). This in turn resulted in frequent changes in policy design, blockage to legal reforms, slow execution of public budgets and, ultimately, slow progress or stagnation in the provision of basic social services for children. This instability had a significant impact on the implementation of the UNICEF country programme as well.
FAO has prepared a National gender profile of agriculture and rural livelihoods in Ethiopia as an important step towards inclusive agricultural growth and transformation. This Profile provides a very useful reference to inform the implementation and monitoring of the frameworks highlighted above with stronger attention to gender. It will also inform the country periodic reporting on the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the upcoming Beijing Plus 25 review process which will take place in 2020.
On 16 April 2016 a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck the Pacific northwest area of Ecuador, its epicentre situated close to Muisne and Pedernales municipalities in the northern part of the country and170 km northwest of the capital, Quito. The earthquake directly affected 720,000 people, of whom 350,000 were in need of urgent assistance. Immediate needs were safe water, sanitation and hygiene, emergency and temporary shelter, health, protection (including psychosocial support and child protection), food assistance and education. By early January 2017 some 5,544 people were still living in 24 official camps managed by the Government of Ecuador, nearly half of whom (2,846) were children and adolescents, and more than 4,030 people were living in 63 informal refugee shelters. In 2017 UNICEF Ecuador’s emergency strategy shifted toward sector coordination and building local institutional capacity, and focused on developing resilient systems in all sectors to deliver long-term development results.
This joint annex presents progress on the implementation of the common chapter of the Strategic Plans, 2018-2021, of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), in response to a request by the Executive Boards of the four agencies for “details on the implementation of the common chapter in [their] annual reporting and, when applicable and as appropriate, at the joint meeting of the Executive Boards”. The approach of working together is also measured annually by indicators from the 2016 quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system (QCPR) contained in the QCPR annexes attached to the respective annual report of each agency.
This report examines the situation in Cuba in 2017. Although Cuba was hit by Hurricane Irma in October, affecting over 9 million people in 13 of 15 provinces, the economy grew by 1.6 per cent in 2017 while tourism grew by 4.4 per cent. The most outstanding result for children was the reduction of infant mortality, which reached a historic low of four deaths per 1,000 live births thanks to such factors as maternal milk banks, immunization and certification of baby-friendly hospitals, with UNICEF Cuba support.
UNICEF’s Strategic Plan 2014–2017 guides the organization’s work in support of the realization of the rights of every child. At the core of the Strategic Plan, UNICEF’s equity strategy
– which emphasizes reaching the most disadvantaged and excluded children, caregivers and families – translates this commitment to children’s rights into action. The following report summarizes how UNICEF and its partners contributed to nutrition in 2017 and reviews the impact of these accomplishments on children and the communities where they live.
Social protection policies play a critical role in realizing the human right to social security for all, reducing poverty and inequality, and promoting inclusive growth – by boosting human capital and productivity, and by supporting domestic demand and structural transformation of national economies. This ILO flagship report provides a global overview of the organization of social protection systems, their coverage and benefits, as well as public expenditures on social protection.
The report follows a life-cycle approach, starting with social protection for children, followed by schemes for women and men in working age, and closing with pensions and other support for older persons. It also assesses progress towards universal coverage in health. The report further analyses trends and recent policies, such as the negative impacts of fiscal consolidation and adjustment measures, and urgently calls to expand social protection for crisis recovery, inclusive development and social justice.
Planning and management for sustainable development require an understanding of the linkages between environmental conditions and human activities and encourage participation by all sectors of society in decision-making. This publication is a useful tool that will help strengthen institutional capacity to prepare environmental assessments and comprehensive reports on cities in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
This UN-Water Analytical Brief analyses the central role of water and sanitation to describe the links and interdependencies between the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 6 on water and sanitation and those of other Goals. It aims to stimulate United Nations Member States’ consideration of the water-related linkages within the Goals to facilitate an integrated approach to implementation. The Brief highlights the importance of mainstreaming water and sanitation in the policies and plans of other sectors, and how the management of interlinkages supports the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The world is facing a water quality challenge. Serious and increasing pollution of fresh water in both developing and developed countries poses a growing risk to public health, food security, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Pollution is strongly linked to economic development – with population growth and the expansion of agriculture, industry and energy production all in turn producing wastewater, much of which goes into surface and groundwater bodies uncontrolled or untreated. Despite recent preliminary assessments of the current worldwide water quality situation, the magnitude of the challenge is still unknown. Better information is required on where the issues lie and what is needed to effectively and efficiently take action to protect and improve water quality.
This Analytical Brief provides information about past assessments, outlines the challenge but also provides a plan for a world water quality assessment, which, if undertaken, would provide decision makers with the information they need to address this challenge. The Analytical Brief also explores the strong linkages between water quality and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG 6, “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all,” includes a specific target (6.3) dedicated to water quality. Central questions include: ‘how can the water quality target be achieved?’; ‘How will worsening water pollution affect SDGs for health, food security, and biodiversity, among others?’; Or, conversely, ‘how can actions to protect and enhance water quality help meet other SDGs?’.
The majority of the urban poor in Nairobi, including asylum seekers and refugees, find employment and self-employment opportunities in the highly competitive informal sector. Poor regulation, poor physical infrastructure and limited access to institutionalized business support services, limit the viability of the informal sector. Those without specialized skills or capital to start a business earn daily wages as casual labourers or as low-level employees. For asylum seekers and refugees the odds are worse, encumbered by a lengthy asylum seeking process, limited engagement with local administrative authorities which deprives them of critical protection and support, and a business community hesitant to engage them as a potential market. Without ownership of fixed assets those seeking to start or grow a business fail to meet the collateral requirements to access business loans. The March 2012 livelihoods baseline indicates that food alone comprises between 45 percent and 55 percent of monthly costs for the very poor. After spending on food and housing, very little remains for other essentials. Additional expenditure on limited health care, hygiene, energy and water deplete the modest monthly wage. UNHCR and the urban refugee’s livelihoods working group are implementing livelihoods projects targeting refugees and Kenyans. With limited funding and experience the UNHCR chaired urban refugee’s livelihoods working group is implementing a range of livelihood support projects. To improve the effectiveness of current livelihoods programming resources are required to build partner technical capacity in designing, implementing, and monitoring and evaluating interventions, institutionalizing the use of best practices and models that are proven to work, and scaling up to reach more beneficiaries.
This publication is intended to help fill some of the more pressing accountability gaps that impede the realization of global and national development goals. We approach this challenge from the perspective of human rights, as a universal normative and legally binding framework embodying the minimum requirements of a dignified life, encapsulating universal values that a post-2015 agreement should strive to prioritize and protect as well as essential features of a road map to take us there.
This publication provides an introduction to women’s human rights, beginning with the main provisions in international human rights law and going on to explain particularly relevant concepts for fully understanding women’s human rights. Finally, selected areas of women’s human rights are examined together with information on the main work of United Nations human rights mechanisms and others pertaining to these topics. The aim of the publication is to offer a basic understanding of the human rights of women as a whole, but because of the wide variety of issues relevant to women’s human rights, it should not be considered exhaustive.
The Incheon Declaration for Education 2030 has been instrumental to shape the Sustainable Development Goal on Education to “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. It entrusts UNESCO with the leadership, coordination and monitoring of the Education 2030 agenda. It also calls upon the Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report to provide independent monitoring and reporting of the Sustainable Development Goal on education (SDG 4), and on education in the other SDGs, for the next fifteen years. The ultimate goal of this agenda is to leave no one behind. This calls for robust data and sound monitoring. The 2016 edition of the GEM Report provides valuable insight for governments and policy makers to monitor and accelerate progress towards SDG 4, building on the indicators and targets we have, with equity and inclusion as measures of overall success.
As the world economic landscape changes, so too does the HIV funding landscape. The limited resources available require more emphasis on value for money. This case study report consists of eight case studies. It highlights countries’ progress in making their HIV response more efficient or increasing domestic HIV funding, contributing to sustainability, increased scale-up and country ownership. Cambodia and Myanmar have re-allocated resources towards high-impact interventions. South Africa and Swaziland have saved millions by improving their antiretroviral drug tenders. Kenya, Namibia, Malawi and Kazakhstan have taken active steps for a future with fewer external funds. Each country has evolved strategies that other countries may apply to their particular context. The examples given here aim to catalyse country-driven action to make efficiency and sustainably funded HIV services the reality in the HIV response.
This document presents experiences of how community-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery can improve both the level of access to treatment and the quality of health outcomes for people living with HIV. These experiences illustrate that community-based ART delivery is efficient, effective and high quality. This document draws from several Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) reports and articles regarding its experiences with community-supported ART delivery.
Fast-tracking the end of the AIDS epidemic by 2030 requires strong political leadership and commitment to stop new infections and deaths among young women and adolescent girls and eliminate mother to child transmission of HIV. This requires building on, and extending Africa’s commitments on sexual and reproductive health and rights, expanding ministerial commitments on comprehensive sexuality education and stopping early marriage, adolescent pregnancy and expanding treatment service coverage.