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Cobenefits and trade-offs of green and clean energy: evidence from the academic literature and Asian case studies

Published by: ADB


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This paper assesses the positive cobenefits of promoting green and clean energy in Asia, and discusses four case studies where cobenefits have been delivered in practice in Indonesia, People's Republic of China, Japan, and Singapore. It first defines what is meant by “clean” energy across the four technological systems of cooking, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and urban transport. It summarizes at least four general types of cobenefits to investing in these systems.

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General Information

SDGs Goal 3: Good health and well-being Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth Goal 13: Climate action
Published
2016
Thematic Area
Inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication
Sustainability
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Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all

Since the creation of the Millennium Development Goals there have been historic achievements in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and tackling HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other diseases. In 15 years, the number of people newly infected by HIV each year has dropped from 3.1 million to 2 million and over 6.2 million lives were saved from malaria. Since 1990, maternal mortality fell by 45 percent, and worldwide there has been an over 50 percent decline in preventable child deaths globally.  

Despite this incredible progress, AIDS is the leading cause of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and 22 million people living with HIV are not accessing life-saving antiretroviral therapy. New HIV infections continue to rise in some locations and in populations that are typically excluded or marginalised.

Chronic and catastrophic disease remains one of the main factors that push households from poverty into deprivation. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) impose a large burden on human health worldwide. Currently, 63% of all deaths worldwide stem from NCDs – chiefly cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. The cumulative economic losses to low- and middle-income countries from the four diseases are estimated to surpass US$ 7 trillion by 2025. Additionally, there continues to be underinvestment in the social circumstances and environmental factors affecting health. The job on HIV and health is far from done.

Recognizing the interdependence of health and development, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an ambitious, comprehensive plan of action for people, planet and prosperity and for ending the injustices that underpin poor health and development outcomes.

SDG 3 aspires to ensure health and well-being for all, including a bold commitment to end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030. It also aims to achieve universal health coverage, and provide access to safe and effective medicines and vaccines for all. Supporting research and development for vaccines is an essential part of this process as well as expanding access to affordable medicines.

Promoting health and well-being is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 3.

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Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all

Since the creation of the Millennium Development Goals there have been historic achievements in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and tackling HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other diseases. In 15 years, the number of people newly infected by HIV each year has dropped from 3.1 million to 2 million and over 6.2 million lives were saved from malaria. Since 1990, maternal mortality fell by 45 percent, and worldwide there has been an over 50 percent decline in preventable child deaths globally.  

Despite this incredible progress, AIDS is the leading cause of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and 22 million people living with HIV are not accessing life-saving antiretroviral therapy. New HIV infections continue to rise in some locations and in populations that are typically excluded or marginalised.

Chronic and catastrophic disease remains one of the main factors that push households from poverty into deprivation. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) impose a large burden on human health worldwide. Currently, 63% of all deaths worldwide stem from NCDs – chiefly cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. The cumulative economic losses to low- and middle-income countries from the four diseases are estimated to surpass US$ 7 trillion by 2025. Additionally, there continues to be underinvestment in the social circumstances and environmental factors affecting health. The job on HIV and health is far from done.

Recognizing the interdependence of health and development, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an ambitious, comprehensive plan of action for people, planet and prosperity and for ending the injustices that underpin poor health and development outcomes.

SDG 3 aspires to ensure health and well-being for all, including a bold commitment to end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030. It also aims to achieve universal health coverage, and provide access to safe and effective medicines and vaccines for all. Supporting research and development for vaccines is an essential part of this process as well as expanding access to affordable medicines.

Promoting health and well-being is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 3.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 3 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 3 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 292 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-03.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-03.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 82134 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137423 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

By incorporating health services and health specialists, the SDG Fund programmes tackle the health challenges and opportunities underlying intersectoral interventions. In addition, the SDG Fund, particularly through the work of the World Health Organization, promotes positive changes in national and local health policies.

For example,

  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund programme is addressing the health damages produced by aflatoxin contamination in corn. A risk analysis report is determining the prevalence and damage to health and a pilot is being tested to be expanded to other regions in the country.
  • In Paraguay, the SDG Fund is working with the health system as part of a cross-sector approach for indigenous and vulnerable rural households, particularly female headed families, to produce nutritious and diversified food production. Health personnel is being trained on new monitoring systems to track health and nutrition status.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using national surveys for more efficient and effective investments in food security and nutrition by highlighting the gaps, opportunities and impact of current initiatives. For example, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) includes a detailed assessment of nutrition for children under 5 and a manual on health and nutrition for preschool is being developed to improve nutrition in schools.
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The SDG Fund response

By incorporating health services and health specialists, the SDG Fund programmes tackle the health challenges and opportunities underlying intersectoral interventions. In addition, the SDG Fund, particularly through the work of the World Health Organization, promotes positive changes in national and local health policies.

For example,

  • In Guatemala, the SDG Fund programme is addressing the health damages produced by aflatoxin contamination in corn. A risk analysis report is determining the prevalence and damage to health and a pilot is being tested to be expanded to other regions in the country.
  • In Paraguay, the SDG Fund is working with the health system as part of a cross-sector approach for indigenous and vulnerable rural households, particularly female headed families, to produce nutritious and diversified food production. Health personnel is being trained on new monitoring systems to track health and nutrition status.
  • In Sri Lanka, the joint programme is addressing food insecurity by closely aligning with national policies and using national surveys for more efficient and effective investments in food security and nutrition by highlighting the gaps, opportunities and impact of current initiatives. For example, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) includes a detailed assessment of nutrition for children under 5 and a manual on health and nutrition for preschool is being developed to improve nutrition in schools.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
  • By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
  • By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
  • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
  • Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
  • By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
  • By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
  • Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
  • Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
  • Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
  • Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
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  • By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
  • By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
  • By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
  • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
  • Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
  • By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
  • By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
  • Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
  • Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
  • Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
  • Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
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Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity has increased by 1.7 billion, and as the global population continues to rise so will the demand for cheap energy. A global economy reliant on fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is creating drastic changes to our climate system. This is having a visible impact on every continent.

However, there has been a new drive to encourage alternative energy sources, and in 2011 renewable energy accounted for more than 20 percent of global power generated. Still one in five people lack access to electricity, and as the demand continues to rise there needs to be a substantial increase in the production of renewable energy across the world.

Ensuring universal access to affordable electricity by 2030 means investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. Adopting cost-effective standards for a wider range of technologies could also reduce the global electricity consumption by buildings and industry by 14 percent. This means avoiding roughly 1,300 mid-size power plants. Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean energy sources in all developing countries is a crucial goal that can both encourage growth and help the environment.

Sustainable energy is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 7.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity has increased by 1.7 billion, and as the global population continues to rise so will the demand for cheap energy. A global economy reliant on fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is creating drastic changes to our climate system. This is having a visible impact on every continent.

However, there has been a new drive to encourage alternative energy sources, and in 2011 renewable energy accounted for more than 20 percent of global power generated. Still one in five people lack access to electricity, and as the demand continues to rise there needs to be a substantial increase in the production of renewable energy across the world.

Ensuring universal access to affordable electricity by 2030 means investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. Adopting cost-effective standards for a wider range of technologies could also reduce the global electricity consumption by buildings and industry by 14 percent. This means avoiding roughly 1,300 mid-size power plants. Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean energy sources in all developing countries is a crucial goal that can both encourage growth and help the environment.

Sustainable energy is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 7.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 7 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 7 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 305 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-07.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-07.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 95073 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138479 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund programmes promote the use of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. At the same, time they promote construction techniques that are more energy efficient.

For example,

  • In Bolivia, a food security and nutrition programme is promoting the use of solar energy in the food production. Farmers are able to produce at a lower cost and reduce their CO2 emissions.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund programme is supporting, through UNIDO and national partners, a technology exchange with South African National Cleaner Production Center. This government facility promotes resource efficient and cleaner production methodologies to assist industry in lowering costs through reduced energy, water and materials usage, and waste management.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund programmes promote the use of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. At the same, time they promote construction techniques that are more energy efficient.

For example,

  • In Bolivia, a food security and nutrition programme is promoting the use of solar energy in the food production. Farmers are able to produce at a lower cost and reduce their CO2 emissions.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund programme is supporting, through UNIDO and national partners, a technology exchange with South African National Cleaner Production Center. This government facility promotes resource efficient and cleaner production methodologies to assist industry in lowering costs through reduced energy, water and materials usage, and waste management.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
  • By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
  • By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
  • By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
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  • By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
  • By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
  • By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
  • By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
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Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all

Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the long-lasting impact of the economic crisis of 2008/2009. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015.

However, as the global economy continues to recover we are seeing slower growth, widening inequalities and employment that is not expanding fast enough to keep up with the growing labour force. According to the International Labour Organization, more than 204 million people are unemployed in 2015.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to encourage sustained economic growth by achieving higher levels of productivity and through technological innovation. Promoting policies that encourage entrepreneurship and job creation are key to this, as are effective measures to eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. With these targets in mind, the goal is to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030.

Decent work is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 8.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all

Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the long-lasting impact of the economic crisis of 2008/2009. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015.

However, as the global economy continues to recover we are seeing slower growth, widening inequalities and employment that is not expanding fast enough to keep up with the growing labour force. According to the International Labour Organization, more than 204 million people are unemployed in 2015.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to encourage sustained economic growth by achieving higher levels of productivity and through technological innovation. Promoting policies that encourage entrepreneurship and job creation are key to this, as are effective measures to eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. With these targets in mind, the goal is to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030.

Decent work is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 8.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 8 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 8 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 308 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-08.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-08.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 90530 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138659 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  • Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  • Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  • Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Cote d’Ivoire, the SDG Fund programme to reduce poverty in the region of San Pedro is working to avoid the worst forms of child labour. Young people (all at least 15 years of age and thus legally permitted to work under local law) have received vocational training and are engaged in income generating activities including aquaculture and chicken rearing, both of which rely on traditional know how and are considered to be very low risk activities. The activities take place with the full support of parents and avoid exploitation of young people in cacao plantations.
  • In Honduras, the SDG-F will support income generation through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  • Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  • Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  • Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Cote d’Ivoire, the SDG Fund programme to reduce poverty in the region of San Pedro is working to avoid the worst forms of child labour. Young people (all at least 15 years of age and thus legally permitted to work under local law) have received vocational training and are engaged in income generating activities including aquaculture and chicken rearing, both of which rely on traditional know how and are considered to be very low risk activities. The activities take place with the full support of parents and avoid exploitation of young people in cacao plantations.
  • In Honduras, the SDG-F will support income generation through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
  • Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
  • Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
  • Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
  • By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
  • By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
  • Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
  • Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
  • By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
  • Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
  • By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
  • Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
  • Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
  • Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
  • By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
  • By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
  • Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
  • Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
  • By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
  • Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
  • By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
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Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action.

Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 13.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action.

Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 13.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 13 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 13 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 323 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-13.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-13.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 72657 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450139877 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.

The following criteria are essential elements observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

For example,

  • In Cuba, the SDG Fund is strengthening resilience and improving access to water in tackling the impacts of recent droughts, noted as the worst in recent history, affecting more than one million people.
  • In Fiji, a SDG Fund programme is building the capacity of young farmers in organic agriculture for climate resilience.  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.

The following criteria are essential elements observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

For example,

  • In Cuba, the SDG Fund is strengthening resilience and improving access to water in tackling the impacts of recent droughts, noted as the worst in recent history, affecting more than one million people.
  • In Fiji, a SDG Fund programme is building the capacity of young farmers in organic agriculture for climate resilience.  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
  • Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
  • Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
  • Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
  • Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

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Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights.

Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all. This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post-2015 agenda.

A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:

  • Skills development
  • Supportive policies towards micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • The capacity to innovate and absorb new technologies
  • The ability to produce a higher quality and greater range of products
  • Infrastructure and other investments

Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. Business wants a level playing field and to be connected to major markets. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption.

Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, the SDG Fund will work with mineral extractive industries to generate economic growth and opportunities for the whole population. For example, in Mozambique, analysis indicates that the 5 largest projects in the country with an invesment of USD $3.4 billion, will generate only 33,000 direct jobs.
  • In Bangladesh and in Tanzania, the SDG Fund will contribute to the construction of the social protection systems and universal social safety nets, with special attention to the poorest women.
  • In Honduras the SDG-F will support the generation of income through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • The armed conflict in Colombia has damaged production, institutions, food security, and social trust. Through the sustainable agricultural production of indigenous crops and their international commercialization, the SDG-F will create employment, ways of life, better nutrition, and, most importantly, peace in Cauca - one of the zones most affected by the long lasting conflict.
  • In Peru the SDG Fund will contribute to establishing an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increase of demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.



Current SDG Fund inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BangladeshStrengthening Women’s Ability for Productive New Opportunities (SWAPNO)UNDP,  ILO

4,613,000

ColombiaProductive and food secured territories for a peaceful and resilient population in strategic ecosystems in CaucaUNDP, UN Women, FAO, WFP

3,281,152

EthiopiaGender Equality and Women Empowerment - Rural Women Economic EmpowermentUN Women, FAO, IFAD, WFP

3,000,000

HondurasPromotion of Culture and Tourism for Local Development in Ruta LencaUNDP, UN Women

2,919,427

Côte d'Ivoire

Poverty reduction in San Pedro region

UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, UNFPA

3,310,000

MozambiqueMore and better jobs in Cabo Delgado province and Nampula province - Harnessing the opportunities of the New Economy in MozambiqueILO, UNDP, UNIDO, UN Women

3,000,000

occupied Palestinian territoryCreating one-stop-shop to create sustainable businesses” on Inclusive Economic Growth.UN Women, FAO, ITC

3,000,000

Peru

Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development of Andean Grain producers in rural areas of extreme poverty in Ayacucho and PunoILO, FAO, UNESCO

3,880,790

Sierra LeoneEnabling Sustainable Livelihoods Through Improved Natural Resource Governance and Economic Diversification in the Kono District, Sierra LeoneUNDP, FAO

3,002,000

TanzaniaJoint programme to support Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN)UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, ILO

4,358,250

 

Total

34,364,619

Previous programmes:

Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods. Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. 

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights.

Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all. This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post-2015 agenda.

A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:

  • Skills development
  • Supportive policies towards micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • The capacity to innovate and absorb new technologies
  • The ability to produce a higher quality and greater range of products
  • Infrastructure and other investments

Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. Business wants a level playing field and to be connected to major markets. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption.

Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, the SDG Fund will work with mineral extractive industries to generate economic growth and opportunities for the whole population. For example, in Mozambique, analysis indicates that the 5 largest projects in the country with an invesment of USD $3.4 billion, will generate only 33,000 direct jobs.
  • In Bangladesh and in Tanzania, the SDG Fund will contribute to the construction of the social protection systems and universal social safety nets, with special attention to the poorest women.
  • In Honduras the SDG-F will support the generation of income through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • The armed conflict in Colombia has damaged production, institutions, food security, and social trust. Through the sustainable agricultural production of indigenous crops and their international commercialization, the SDG-F will create employment, ways of life, better nutrition, and, most importantly, peace in Cauca - one of the zones most affected by the long lasting conflict.
  • In Peru the SDG Fund will contribute to establishing an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increase of demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.

Current SDG Fund inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BangladeshStrengthening Women’s Ability for Productive New Opportunities (SWAPNO)UNDP,  ILO

4,613,000

ColombiaProductive and food secured territories for a peaceful and resilient population in strategic ecosystems in CaucaUNDP, UN Women, FAO, WFP

3,281,152

EthiopiaGender Equality and Women Empowerment - Rural Women Economic EmpowermentUN Women, FAO, IFAD, WFP

3,000,000

HondurasPromotion of Culture and Tourism for Local Development in Ruta LencaUNDP, UN Women

2,919,427

Côte d'Ivoire

Poverty reduction in San Pedro region

UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, UNFPA

3,310,000

MozambiqueMore and better jobs in Cabo Delgado province and Nampula province - Harnessing the opportunities of the New Economy in MozambiqueILO, UNDP, UNIDO, UN Women

3,000,000

occupied Palestinian territoryCreating one-stop-shop to create sustainable businesses” on Inclusive Economic Growth.UN Women, FAO, ITC

3,000,000

Peru

Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development of Andean Grain producers in rural areas of extreme poverty in Ayacucho and PunoILO, FAO, UNESCO

3,880,790

Sierra LeoneEnabling Sustainable Livelihoods Through Improved Natural Resource Governance and Economic Diversification in the Kono District, Sierra LeoneUNDP, FAO

3,002,000

TanzaniaJoint programme to support Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN)UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, ILO

4,358,250

 

Total

34,364,619

Previous programmes:

Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods. Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. 

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Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication.
Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication. Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

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The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

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The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

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