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Agricultural use of groundwater and management initiatives in the Maghreb: challenges and opportunities for sustainable aquifer exploitation

Published by: AfDB


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The intensive use of natural resources in the Maghreb, in particular by the agricultural sector, is creating an urgent need to design governance mechanisms at both the local and national level. Groundwater has become one of the most fragile of these resources. The rapid development of groundwater use for irrigation in the Maghreb has resulted in significant agricultural growth, but in many regions, such development has become unsustainable because of aquifer overexploitation or water and soil salinization. Adequate instruments to address this unsustainable use are not easy to design and implement, for there are many informal groundwater withdrawals by farmers, and water resource management organizations have limited intervention capacity. The paper examines groundwater use and management in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia based on a study of national institutional and policy mechanisms and nine local case studies. Overexploitation creates environmental, economic and social risks, and there are already significant identifiable impacts in several of the case studies. Farmers address the problem of decreasing borehole flow-rates (or water salinization) either by constantly investing more in order to continue to have sufficient quantities of fresh water for their crops, or by adjusting their cropping systems to adapt to this decrease. In the absence of specific policies, there are increasing differences between those farms that have the resources to continue investing more in order to have sufficient water, and those that have to adapt their crops to the shortage. Legal frameworks have laid management foundations, but they only have a limited impact, in particular, because of the generally informal nature of such uses. Different strategies are currently being discussed at national level, and are often focused on contractual approaches with the farmers. Concomitantly, some collective initiatives have been conceived at local level. The range of policies implemented to address this unsustainable use is very broad-based, and entails both increased water resources and the adoption of instruments to limit increases in withdrawals. These instruments are based on control and incentive mechanisms. In the cases considered, jointly used instruments have made it possible to limit increases in withdrawals and to facilitate water enhancement, without, however, restoring the resource-use balance. The design and implementation of strategies for sustainable aquifer exploitation require the building of coalitions of actors, which should include organizations responsible for water resources, those involved in agriculture, but also - and especially - farmers. Support could be provided to the formation of such coalitions and to their reflections on possible options to assist an agricultural economy based on sustainable aquifer use.

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General Information

SDGs Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation Goal 12: Responsible consumption, production Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals
Published
2011
Thematic Area
Water and sanitation
Sustainability
Public private partnerships
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Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a consequence of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent.

In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress; ten of them are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on non-conventional sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already exacerbating these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages.

Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if we are to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries.  

Universal access to clean water and sanitation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 6.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a consequence of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent.

In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress; ten of them are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on non-conventional sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already exacerbating these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages.

Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if we are to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries.  

Universal access to clean water and sanitation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 6.

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The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  • Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  • Ensuring healthy lives
  • Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

For example,

  • The Colombian Massif region is home to the most important watershed in the country. It’s also one of the largest reserves of fresh water in equatorial areas worldwide. Despite being designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, deforestation coupled with conflict, the emergence of illicit crops, and deregulated agricultural borders of indigenous rural communities in the last decade have deteriorated the region. In order to better assess the current state of water resources in the area and stimulate a major regional agreement for water, the SDG Fund is working with administrations, community councils, community aqueduct consumer boards, indigenous rural representatives and the education sector. The aim is to develop protection plans for the watershed and surrounding forests, and provide technical cooperation towards integrated water management.
  • In the Philippines, the joint programme builds on the experiences and gains of previous programmes on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.
  • In Sri Lanka, the SDG Fund programme is carrying out surveys to gather data on the water and sanitation services availabile at all 10,000 schools. With this information, the Ministry of Education will ensure that all schools and students have access to clean water and sanitation, which is key to improve educational outcomes and nutrition status of students.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  • Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  • Ensuring healthy lives
  • Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

For example,

  • The Colombian Massif region is home to the most important watershed in the country. It’s also one of the largest reserves of fresh water in equatorial areas worldwide. Despite being designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, deforestation coupled with conflict, the emergence of illicit crops, and deregulated agricultural borders of indigenous rural communities in the last decade have deteriorated the region. In order to better assess the current state of water resources in the area and stimulate a major regional agreement for water, the SDG Fund is working with administrations, community councils, community aqueduct consumer boards, indigenous rural representatives and the education sector. The aim is to develop protection plans for the watershed and surrounding forests, and provide technical cooperation towards integrated water management.
  • In the Philippines, the joint programme builds on the experiences and gains of previous programmes on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.
  • In Sri Lanka, the SDG Fund programme is carrying out surveys to gather data on the water and sanitation services availabile at all 10,000 schools. With this information, the Ministry of Education will ensure that all schools and students have access to clean water and sanitation, which is key to improve educational outcomes and nutrition status of students.
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  • By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
  • By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
  • By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  • By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
  • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
  • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
  • Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
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  • By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
  • By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
  • By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  • By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
  • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
  • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
  • Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
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Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater appropriated for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs. Halving per capita global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy.

Responsible production and consumption is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 12.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater appropriated for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs. Halving per capita global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy.

Responsible production and consumption is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 12.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 12 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 12 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 320 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-12.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-12.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 106280 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450139752 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund is collaborating with partners, including from the private sector, to promote more responsible consumption and outsourcing practices, with a particular focus on ensuring that local farmers can obtain a fairer share of the value generated across the value chain.

For example,

  • The SDG Fund is working with the UNDP Goodwill Ambassadors, the Roca Brothers chefs, who are leading a conversation on how chefs can make a difference in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. At the UN ECOSOC Chamber they gathered with key representatives of the food, nutrition, and development world to discuss how the food industry can contribute to achieve the SDGs and make food accessible for everyone everywhere. They are already working on the ground in some specific projects, including in Nigeria.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
  • In Fiji, the SDG Fund is promoting organic agriculture, a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The programme is working with the tourism industry to ensure that organic production satisfies a growing demand in the industry.
  • In Bolivia, the SDG Fund joint programme is supporting four municipalities to establish sustainable agricultural production systems which will increase the incomes of the poorest families and improve the nutritional state of boys, girls and mothers.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund is collaborating with partners, including from the private sector, to promote more responsible consumption and outsourcing practices, with a particular focus on ensuring that local farmers can obtain a fairer share of the value generated across the value chain.

For example,

  • The SDG Fund is working with the UNDP Goodwill Ambassadors, the Roca Brothers chefs, who are leading a conversation on how chefs can make a difference in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. At the UN ECOSOC Chamber they gathered with key representatives of the food, nutrition, and development world to discuss how the food industry can contribute to achieve the SDGs and make food accessible for everyone everywhere. They are already working on the ground in some specific projects, including in Nigeria.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
  • In Fiji, the SDG Fund is promoting organic agriculture, a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The programme is working with the tourism industry to ensure that organic production satisfies a growing demand in the industry.
  • In Bolivia, the SDG Fund joint programme is supporting four municipalities to establish sustainable agricultural production systems which will increase the incomes of the poorest families and improve the nutritional state of boys, girls and mothers.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
  • By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
  • By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
  • By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
  • By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
  • Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
  • Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
  • By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
  • Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
  • Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
  • By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
  • By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
  • By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
  • By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
  • Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
  • Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
  • By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
  • Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
  • Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
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Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can only be realized with a strong commitment to global partnership and cooperation. While official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 percent between 2000 and 2014, humanitarian crises brought on by conflict or natural disasters continue to demand financial resources and aid. Many countries also require Official Development Assistance to encourage growth and trade.

The world today is more interconnected than ever before. Improving access to technology and knowledge is an important way to share ideas and foster innovation. Coordinating policies to help developing countries manage their debt, as well as promoting investment for the least developed, is vital to achieve sustainable growth and development.

The goals aim to enhance North-South and South-South cooperation by supporting national plans to achieve all the targets. Promoting international trade, and helping developing countries increase their exports, is all part of achieving a universal rules-based and equitable trading system that is fair and open, and benefits all.

Strengthening global solidarity is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 17.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can only be realized with a strong commitment to global partnership and cooperation. While official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 percent between 2000 and 2014, humanitarian crises brought on by conflict or natural disasters continue to demand financial resources and aid. Many countries also require Official Development Assistance to encourage growth and trade.

The world today is more interconnected than ever before. Improving access to technology and knowledge is an important way to share ideas and foster innovation. Coordinating policies to help developing countries manage their debt, as well as promoting investment for the least developed, is vital to achieve sustainable growth and development.

The goals aim to enhance North-South and South-South cooperation by supporting national plans to achieve all the targets. Promoting international trade, and helping developing countries increase their exports, is all part of achieving a universal rules-based and equitable trading system that is fair and open, and benefits all.

Strengthening global solidarity is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 17.

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The SDG Fund response

SDG Fund bridges the efforts of different development partners such as UN agencies, national and local governments, businesses, civil society, and academia.

All SDG Fund programmes are cooperative or joint in nature, which means UN agencies coordinate with one another and their national partners to establish integrated responses that address community-wide issues such as poor access to potable water, child nutrition, income generation for vulnerable populations, and gender parity at the institutional level. 

Sustainable development must be inclusive and people-centered. Efforts to increase the effectiveness of development cooperation should be based on basic principles of country ownership, inclusive partnerships, transparency and accountability.

For example,

  • The SDG Fund has introduced the use of matching funds that are provided by national and local governments, international donors and the private sector. This increases sustainability, impact, national ownership and the potential to scale up.  55% of the overall SDG Fund programme budget comes from matching funds.
  • To contribute to developing strong public-private partnerships, the SDG-F established a Private Sector Advisory Group formed by business leaders of major companies from various industries worldwide. These leaders are helping the SDG Fund build a roadmap for how public-private alliances can provide large-scale solutions for achieving the SDGs. Its aim is to collaborate and discuss practical solutions pertaining to the common challenges of contemporary sustainability. The Advisory Group is committed to identifying areas of common interest and deciphering the best methods of UN-private sector engagement, as well as offering suggestions for how to work more effectively at the country level.
  • A clear interest in South-South Collaboration is being incorporated from the inception of programmes. For example, in Paraguay the SDG-F is supporting the creation of a national observatory on the Right to Food in order to improve food security, nutrition policy-making and implementation. The initiative is promoting the exchange of experiences with countries that have already established similar mechanisms. In Tanzania, the SDG-F is supporting the national government to build and scale-up a pro-poor and child-sensitive national social protection system. The programme is promoting South-South Cooperation among countries that have implemented similar schemes in order to build the capacities of the Minister of Finance.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

SDG Fund bridges the efforts of different development partners such as UN agencies, national and local governments, businesses, civil society, and academia.

All SDG Fund programmes are cooperative or joint in nature, which means UN agencies coordinate with one another and their national partners to establish integrated responses that address community-wide issues such as poor access to potable water, child nutrition, income generation for vulnerable populations, and gender parity at the institutional level. 

Sustainable development must be inclusive and people-centered. Efforts to increase the effectiveness of development cooperation should be based on basic principles of country ownership, inclusive partnerships, transparency and accountability.

For example,

  • The SDG Fund has introduced the use of matching funds that are provided by national and local governments, international donors and the private sector. This increases sustainability, impact, national ownership and the potential to scale up.  55% of the overall SDG Fund programme budget comes from matching funds.
  • To contribute to developing strong public-private partnerships, the SDG-F established a Private Sector Advisory Group formed by business leaders of major companies from various industries worldwide. These leaders are helping the SDG Fund build a roadmap for how public-private alliances can provide large-scale solutions for achieving the SDGs. Its aim is to collaborate and discuss practical solutions pertaining to the common challenges of contemporary sustainability. The Advisory Group is committed to identifying areas of common interest and deciphering the best methods of UN-private sector engagement, as well as offering suggestions for how to work more effectively at the country level.
  • A clear interest in South-South Collaboration is being incorporated from the inception of programmes. For example, in Paraguay the SDG-F is supporting the creation of a national observatory on the Right to Food in order to improve food security, nutrition policy-making and implementation. The initiative is promoting the exchange of experiences with countries that have already established similar mechanisms. In Tanzania, the SDG-F is supporting the national government to build and scale-up a pro-poor and child-sensitive national social protection system. The programme is promoting South-South Cooperation among countries that have implemented similar schemes in order to build the capacities of the Minister of Finance.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Finance

  • Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
  • Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
  • Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
  • Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
  • Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Technology

  • Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
  • Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
  • Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

Capacity building

  • Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Trade

  • Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
  • Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
  • Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

  • Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
  • Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
  • Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

  • Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
  • Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

Data, monitoring and accountability

  • By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
  • By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Finance

  • Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
  • Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
  • Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
  • Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
  • Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Technology

  • Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
  • Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
  • Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

Capacity building

  • Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Trade

  • Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
  • Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
  • Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

  • Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
  • Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
  • Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

  • Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
  • Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

Data, monitoring and accountability

  • By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
  • By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
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Access to water is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Safe drinking water is a scarce and limited resource. Better water resource management and governance can ensure there will be enough water to meet increasing demand. We need to establish good management practices, responsible regulation, and proper pricing.

Improving access – as well as quality – is becoming more urgent as the world faces increasing water scarcity. People living in poverty are likely to be most at risk. Good governance of water and sanitation services ensures that the voices of the poor and vulnerable are heard.

Globally, 768 million people drink unsafe water. 1.8 billion people’s drinking water source is contaminated. 2.5 billion people have no access to hygienic sanitation facilities, and half of those have no sanitation facilities at all.

The Post-2015 consultation resulted in a call for action to ensure universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centres and refugee camps. This is a global minimum standard that should be applied to everyone.

Despite progress towards the water MDG, much more needs to be done. Improving water and sanitation would have a large impact on advancing overall human development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund, following the experience of its precursor the MDG Fund, brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  2. Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  3. Ensuring healthy lives
  4. Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

The joint programme in the Philippines builds on the experiences and gains of two previously MDG-F implemented ones, on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.

 


[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Access to water is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Safe drinking water is a scarce and limited resource. Better water resource management and governance can ensure there will be enough water to meet increasing demand. We need to establish good management practices, responsible regulation, and proper pricing.

Improving access – as well as quality – is becoming more urgent as the world faces increasing water scarcity. People living in poverty are likely to be most at risk. Good governance of water and sanitation services ensures that the voices of the poor and vulnerable are heard.

Globally, 768 million people drink unsafe water. 1.8 billion people’s drinking water source is contaminated. 2.5 billion people have no access to hygienic sanitation facilities, and half of those have no sanitation facilities at all.

The Post-2015 consultation resulted in a call for action to ensure universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centres and refugee camps. This is a global minimum standard that should be applied to everyone.

Despite progress towards the water MDG, much more needs to be done. Improving water and sanitation would have a large impact on advancing overall human development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund, following the experience of its precursor the MDG Fund, brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  2. Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  3. Ensuring healthy lives
  4. Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

The joint programme in the Philippines builds on the experiences and gains of two previously MDG-F implemented ones, on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.

 


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Good governance of water resources is a crucial factor
in achieving sustainable development.

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Good governance of water resources is a crucial factor in achieving sustainable development.

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The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

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Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains

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Public and private institutions are converging towards the achievement of development results. One of the SDG Fund priorities is to facilitate this convergence, leading to a shared responsibility in development challenges.

The SDG Fund’s private-sector strategy has two goals: involving businesses in each of our programmes in the field from the start and creating a global business advisory council.

To better align public-private partnerships for sustainable development, the SDG Fund has established a Private Sector Advisory Groupformed by business leaders of major companies from various industries worldwide. 

The experience of the MDG-F suggests that public-private partnerships can contribute to achieving development goals, capacity building, wealth distribution, and sustainable economic growth.

The private sector is understood as micro-, small, medium, and large companies, self-employed workers, business associations, unions, chambers of commerce, and foundations.

For example, the SDG Fund programmes took into account the following criteria for designing programmes regarding public private partnerships:

  • Has the project included the private sector in its design and implementation?
  • Does the project include solutions to development challenges through core business activities and initiatives that include low-income groups in value chains and as producers, suppliers, employees, and consumers?
  • Does the project facilitate discussion between the public and private sectors and civil society on a specific development theme or industry sector?
  • Does the private sector include micro-, small, medium, and large size companies?
  • Does the project promote entrepreneurial activities of disadvantaged or low-income persons?
  • Does the project promote public and private sector representatives’ joint decisions?
  • Is a results-based management approach used in the design of the project?
  • Does the project include measurable activities and indicators related to the number and size of private institutions participating in the program?
  • Does the project include measurable joint activities between private institutions/private sector and public sector?
  • Does the program aim to enable companies to improve and develop corporate social responsibility? Does it include synergies with current corporate social responsibility initiatives?

More information on the SDG Fund Private Sector Advisory Group: link.

For further information, see:
Document HR/PUB/11/04, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Public and private institutions are converging towards the achievement of development results. One of the SDG Fund priorities is to facilitate this convergence, leading to a shared responsibility in development challenges.

The SDG Fund’s private-sector strategy has two goals: involving businesses in each of our programmes in the field from the start and creating a global business advisory council.

To better align public-private partnerships for sustainable development, the SDG Fund has established a Private Sector Advisory Groupformed by business leaders of major companies from various industries worldwide. 

The experience of the MDG-F suggests that public-private partnerships can contribute to achieving development goals, capacity building, wealth distribution, and sustainable economic growth.

The private sector is understood as micro-, small, medium, and large companies, self-employed workers, business associations, unions, chambers of commerce, and foundations.

For example, the SDG Fund programmes took into account the following criteria for designing programmes regarding public private partnerships:

  • Has the project included the private sector in its design and implementation?
  • Does the project include solutions to development challenges through core business activities and initiatives that include low-income groups in value chains and as producers, suppliers, employees, and consumers?
  • Does the project facilitate discussion between the public and private sectors and civil society on a specific development theme or industry sector?
  • Does the private sector include micro-, small, medium, and large size companies?
  • Does the project promote entrepreneurial activities of disadvantaged or low-income persons?
  • Does the project promote public and private sector representatives’ joint decisions?
  • Is a results-based management approach used in the design of the project?
  • Does the project include measurable activities and indicators related to the number and size of private institutions participating in the program?
  • Does the project include measurable joint activities between private institutions/private sector and public sector?
  • Does the program aim to enable companies to improve and develop corporate social responsibility? Does it include synergies with current corporate social responsibility initiatives?

More information on the SDG Fund Private Sector Advisory Group: link.

For further information, see:
Document HR/PUB/11/04, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights

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Joining efforts and sharing responsibilities of governments and business to achieve sustainable development.

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Joining efforts and sharing responsibilities of governments and business to achieve sustainable development.

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[safe_value] => Tunisia [safe] => Tunisia ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => The intensive use of natural resources in the Maghreb, in particular by the agricultural sector, is creating an urgent need to design governance mechanisms at both the local and national level. Groundwater has become one of the most fragile of these resources. The rapid development of groundwater use for irrigation in the Maghreb has resulted in significant agricultural growth, but in many regions, such development has become unsustainable because of aquifer overexploitation or water and soil salinization. Adequate instruments to address this unsustainable use are not easy to design and implement, for there are many informal groundwater withdrawals by farmers, and water resource management organizations have limited intervention capacity. The paper examines groundwater use and management in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia based on a study of national institutional and policy mechanisms and nine local case studies. Overexploitation creates environmental, economic and social risks, and there are already significant identifiable impacts in several of the case studies. Farmers address the problem of decreasing borehole flow-rates (or water salinization) either by constantly investing more in order to continue to have sufficient quantities of fresh water for their crops, or by adjusting their cropping systems to adapt to this decrease. In the absence of specific policies, there are increasing differences between those farms that have the resources to continue investing more in order to have sufficient water, and those that have to adapt their crops to the shortage. Legal frameworks have laid management foundations, but they only have a limited impact, in particular, because of the generally informal nature of such uses. Different strategies are currently being discussed at national level, and are often focused on contractual approaches with the farmers. Concomitantly, some collective initiatives have been conceived at local level. The range of policies implemented to address this unsustainable use is very broad-based, and entails both increased water resources and the adoption of instruments to limit increases in withdrawals. These instruments are based on control and incentive mechanisms. In the cases considered, jointly used instruments have made it possible to limit increases in withdrawals and to facilitate water enhancement, without, however, restoring the resource-use balance. The design and implementation of strategies for sustainable aquifer exploitation require the building of coalitions of actors, which should include organizations responsible for water resources, those involved in agriculture, but also - and especially - farmers. Support could be provided to the formation of such coalitions and to their reflections on possible options to assist an agricultural economy based on sustainable aquifer use. [format] => [safe_value] => The intensive use of natural resources in the Maghreb, in particular by the agricultural sector, is creating an urgent need to design governance mechanisms at both the local and national level. Groundwater has become one of the most fragile of these resources. The rapid development of groundwater use for irrigation in the Maghreb has resulted in significant agricultural growth, but in many regions, such development has become unsustainable because of aquifer overexploitation or water and soil salinization. Adequate instruments to address this unsustainable use are not easy to design and implement, for there are many informal groundwater withdrawals by farmers, and water resource management organizations have limited intervention capacity. The paper examines groundwater use and management in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia based on a study of national institutional and policy mechanisms and nine local case studies. Overexploitation creates environmental, economic and social risks, and there are already significant identifiable impacts in several of the case studies. Farmers address the problem of decreasing borehole flow-rates (or water salinization) either by constantly investing more in order to continue to have sufficient quantities of fresh water for their crops, or by adjusting their cropping systems to adapt to this decrease. In the absence of specific policies, there are increasing differences between those farms that have the resources to continue investing more in order to have sufficient water, and those that have to adapt their crops to the shortage. Legal frameworks have laid management foundations, but they only have a limited impact, in particular, because of the generally informal nature of such uses. Different strategies are currently being discussed at national level, and are often focused on contractual approaches with the farmers. Concomitantly, some collective initiatives have been conceived at local level. The range of policies implemented to address this unsustainable use is very broad-based, and entails both increased water resources and the adoption of instruments to limit increases in withdrawals. These instruments are based on control and incentive mechanisms. In the cases considered, jointly used instruments have made it possible to limit increases in withdrawals and to facilitate water enhancement, without, however, restoring the resource-use balance. The design and implementation of strategies for sustainable aquifer exploitation require the building of coalitions of actors, which should include organizations responsible for water resources, those involved in agriculture, but also - and especially - farmers. 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