Languages

Topbar Menu EN

Publication
Low-carbon development in Sub-Saharan Africa: 20 cross-sector transitions

Published by: ODI


About

Sub-Saharan Africa is at a critical point, experiencing rapid population growth, particularly in urban areas, and a young and growing workforce. At the same time, the growing risk of catastrophic global climate change threatens to weaken food production systems; increase the intensity and frequency of droughts, floods, and fires; and undermine gains in development and poverty reduction. Although the region has the lowest per capita greenhouse gas emission levels in the world, it will need to join global efforts to address climate change, including through actions to avoid significant increases in emissions. This report reviews agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, extractives, construction and manufacturing, based on their importance to countries' economic development and their contribution to current and future greenhouse gas emissions. Based on this sector-specific analysis, we identify 20 cross-sector transitions that can be undertaken to promote low-carbon development in the region.

View online / download

External Link

Links to external publications on the SDG Library are being provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by the SDG Fund or the UN of any of the products, services or opinions of the corporation, organization or individual. The SDG Fund or the UN bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of the external site or for that of subsequent links. Contact the external site for answers to questions regarding its content.


General Information

SDGs Goal 1: No poverty Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth Goal 9: Industry, innovation, infrastructure Goal 13: Climate action
Published
2015
Thematic Area
Inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication
Sustainability
Array ( [#theme] => field [#weight] => 0 [#title] => External Link URL [#access] => 1 [#label_display] => hidden [#view_mode] => full [#language] => und [#field_name] => field_external_link [#field_type] => text [#field_translatable] => 0 [#entity_type] => node [#bundle] => publication [#object] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 3331 [uid] => 1990 [title] => Low-carbon development in Sub-Saharan Africa: 20 cross-sector transitions [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 1204 [type] => publication [language] => en [created] => 1482422877 [changed] => 1485852949 [tnid] => 0 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1485852949 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_sdgs] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 221 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5467 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 1: No poverty [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 221 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450137029 [changed] => 1517947204 [tnid] => 221 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517947204 [revision_uid] => 7 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 285 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-01.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-01.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 66160 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137029 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty has dropped by more than half – from 1.9 billion in 1990, to 836 million in 2015 – too many people are still struggling to meet the most basic human needs.

Globally, more than 800 million people are still living on less than $1.25 a day; many lack access to adequate food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid economic growth in countries like China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are disproportionately affected; they are more likely to live in poverty due to unequal access to paid work, education and property.

Progress has also been limited in other regions, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which account for 80 percent of the people living in extreme poverty. This rate is expected to rise due to new threats brought on by climate change, conflict and food insecurity.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. In order to achieve the SDGs, we must target those living in vulnerable situations, increasing access to basic resources and services, and support communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.

Ending poverty is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 1.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty has dropped by more than half – from 1.9 billion in 1990, to 836 million in 2015 – too many people are still struggling to meet the most basic human needs.

Globally, more than 800 million people are still living on less than $1.25 a day; many lack access to adequate food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid economic growth in countries like China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are disproportionately affected; they are more likely to live in poverty due to unequal access to paid work, education and property.

Progress has also been limited in other regions, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which account for 80 percent of the people living in extreme poverty. This rate is expected to rise due to new threats brought on by climate change, conflict and food insecurity.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. In order to achieve the SDGs, we must target those living in vulnerable situations, increasing access to basic resources and services, and support communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.

Ending poverty is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 1.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 1 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 1 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 286 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-01.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-01.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 80247 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450137029 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle poverty from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example,

  • In Bangladesh, women are often employed at the lower end of the productivity scale. The labor force participation of rural women is only 36.4% compared to 83.3% of men. Creating employment and income generating opportunities for women and enhancing their access to social protection is helping reduce their poverty and vulnerability. The SDG Fund’s programme is working in the Kurigram district in the Northwest and the Satkhira district in the coastal belt, both regions that are strongly affected by seasonal hunger and extreme poverty. More than 2,500 women have been employed through the programme and were able to open individual savings banking accounts.
  • In Côte d'Ivoire, the SDG Fund is working to reduce poverty by creating economic and job opportunities in the San Pedro region, particularly for women and youth. An integrated approach including training, engaging with the government and other leaders on reforming rural land tenure practices, and creating new income generating activities. The programme is helping increase vulnerable groups' access to information about their rights and providing them with legal assistance. The programme also focuses on ensuring food security and improving nutrition in the poorest households.
  • In Honduras, the SDG Fund supports the revitalization of the Lenca culture and micro-businesses led by women and youth. In the Lenca region, the SDG Fund backs training, business articulation, sustainable tourism promotion and international investment.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle poverty from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example,

  • In Bangladesh, women are often employed at the lower end of the productivity scale. The labor force participation of rural women is only 36.4% compared to 83.3% of men. Creating employment and income generating opportunities for women and enhancing their access to social protection is helping reduce their poverty and vulnerability. The SDG Fund’s programme is working in the Kurigram district in the Northwest and the Satkhira district in the coastal belt, both regions that are strongly affected by seasonal hunger and extreme poverty. More than 2,500 women have been employed through the programme and were able to open individual savings banking accounts.
  • In Côte d'Ivoire, the SDG Fund is working to reduce poverty by creating economic and job opportunities in the San Pedro region, particularly for women and youth. An integrated approach including training, engaging with the government and other leaders on reforming rural land tenure practices, and creating new income generating activities. The programme is helping increase vulnerable groups' access to information about their rights and providing them with legal assistance. The programme also focuses on ensuring food security and improving nutrition in the poorest households.
  • In Honduras, the SDG Fund supports the revitalization of the Lenca culture and micro-businesses led by women and youth. In the Lenca region, the SDG Fund backs training, business articulation, sustainable tourism promotion and international investment.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
  • By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
  • Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
  • By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
  • By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
  • Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
  • By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
  • Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
  • By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
  • By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
  • Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 1 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 1 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [1] => Array ( [target_id] => 233 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5479 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 233 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450138479 [changed] => 1517561646 [tnid] => 233 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517561646 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 304 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-07.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-07.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 58890 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138479 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity has increased by 1.7 billion, and as the global population continues to rise so will the demand for cheap energy. A global economy reliant on fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is creating drastic changes to our climate system. This is having a visible impact on every continent.

However, there has been a new drive to encourage alternative energy sources, and in 2011 renewable energy accounted for more than 20 percent of global power generated. Still one in five people lack access to electricity, and as the demand continues to rise there needs to be a substantial increase in the production of renewable energy across the world.

Ensuring universal access to affordable electricity by 2030 means investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. Adopting cost-effective standards for a wider range of technologies could also reduce the global electricity consumption by buildings and industry by 14 percent. This means avoiding roughly 1,300 mid-size power plants. Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean energy sources in all developing countries is a crucial goal that can both encourage growth and help the environment.

Sustainable energy is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 7.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity has increased by 1.7 billion, and as the global population continues to rise so will the demand for cheap energy. A global economy reliant on fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is creating drastic changes to our climate system. This is having a visible impact on every continent.

However, there has been a new drive to encourage alternative energy sources, and in 2011 renewable energy accounted for more than 20 percent of global power generated. Still one in five people lack access to electricity, and as the demand continues to rise there needs to be a substantial increase in the production of renewable energy across the world.

Ensuring universal access to affordable electricity by 2030 means investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. Adopting cost-effective standards for a wider range of technologies could also reduce the global electricity consumption by buildings and industry by 14 percent. This means avoiding roughly 1,300 mid-size power plants. Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean energy sources in all developing countries is a crucial goal that can both encourage growth and help the environment.

Sustainable energy is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 7.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 7 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 7 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 305 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-07.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-07.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 95073 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138479 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund programmes promote the use of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. At the same, time they promote construction techniques that are more energy efficient.

For example,

  • In Bolivia, a food security and nutrition programme is promoting the use of solar energy in the food production. Farmers are able to produce at a lower cost and reduce their CO2 emissions.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund programme is supporting, through UNIDO and national partners, a technology exchange with South African National Cleaner Production Center. This government facility promotes resource efficient and cleaner production methodologies to assist industry in lowering costs through reduced energy, water and materials usage, and waste management.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund programmes promote the use of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. At the same, time they promote construction techniques that are more energy efficient.

For example,

  • In Bolivia, a food security and nutrition programme is promoting the use of solar energy in the food production. Farmers are able to produce at a lower cost and reduce their CO2 emissions.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund programme is supporting, through UNIDO and national partners, a technology exchange with South African National Cleaner Production Center. This government facility promotes resource efficient and cleaner production methodologies to assist industry in lowering costs through reduced energy, water and materials usage, and waste management.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
  • By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
  • By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
  • By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
  • By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
  • By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
  • By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 7 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 7 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [2] => Array ( [target_id] => 235 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5481 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 235 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450138659 [changed] => 1517561646 [tnid] => 235 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517561646 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 307 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-08.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-08.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 48886 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138659 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all

Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the long-lasting impact of the economic crisis of 2008/2009. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015.

However, as the global economy continues to recover we are seeing slower growth, widening inequalities and employment that is not expanding fast enough to keep up with the growing labour force. According to the International Labour Organization, more than 204 million people are unemployed in 2015.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to encourage sustained economic growth by achieving higher levels of productivity and through technological innovation. Promoting policies that encourage entrepreneurship and job creation are key to this, as are effective measures to eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. With these targets in mind, the goal is to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030.

Decent work is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 8.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all

Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the long-lasting impact of the economic crisis of 2008/2009. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015.

However, as the global economy continues to recover we are seeing slower growth, widening inequalities and employment that is not expanding fast enough to keep up with the growing labour force. According to the International Labour Organization, more than 204 million people are unemployed in 2015.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to encourage sustained economic growth by achieving higher levels of productivity and through technological innovation. Promoting policies that encourage entrepreneurship and job creation are key to this, as are effective measures to eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. With these targets in mind, the goal is to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030.

Decent work is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 8.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 8 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 8 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 308 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-08.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-08.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 90530 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138659 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  • Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  • Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  • Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Cote d’Ivoire, the SDG Fund programme to reduce poverty in the region of San Pedro is working to avoid the worst forms of child labour. Young people (all at least 15 years of age and thus legally permitted to work under local law) have received vocational training and are engaged in income generating activities including aquaculture and chicken rearing, both of which rely on traditional know how and are considered to be very low risk activities. The activities take place with the full support of parents and avoid exploitation of young people in cacao plantations.
  • In Honduras, the SDG-F will support income generation through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  • Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  • Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  • Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Cote d’Ivoire, the SDG Fund programme to reduce poverty in the region of San Pedro is working to avoid the worst forms of child labour. Young people (all at least 15 years of age and thus legally permitted to work under local law) have received vocational training and are engaged in income generating activities including aquaculture and chicken rearing, both of which rely on traditional know how and are considered to be very low risk activities. The activities take place with the full support of parents and avoid exploitation of young people in cacao plantations.
  • In Honduras, the SDG-F will support income generation through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
  • Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
  • Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
  • Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
  • By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
  • By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
  • Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
  • Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
  • By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
  • Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
  • By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
  • Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
  • Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
  • Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
  • By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
  • By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
  • Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
  • Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
  • By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
  • Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
  • Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
  • By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 8 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 8 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [3] => Array ( [target_id] => 237 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5483 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 9: Industry, innovation, infrastructure [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 237 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450138907 [changed] => 1517561646 [tnid] => 237 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517561646 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 310 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-09.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-09.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 64379 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138907 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Sustained investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development. With over half the world population now living in cities, mass transport and renewable energy are becoming ever more important, as are the growth of new industries and information and communication technologies.

Technological progress is also key to finding lasting solutions to both economic and environmental challenges, such as providing new jobs and promoting energy efficiency. Promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation, are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.

More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90 percent are from the developing world. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, and as a consequence foster innovation and entrepreneurship.

Investment in infrastructure and innovation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 9.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Sustained investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development. With over half the world population now living in cities, mass transport and renewable energy are becoming ever more important, as are the growth of new industries and information and communication technologies.

Technological progress is also key to finding lasting solutions to both economic and environmental challenges, such as providing new jobs and promoting energy efficiency. Promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation, are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.

More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90 percent are from the developing world. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, and as a consequence foster innovation and entrepreneurship.

Investment in infrastructure and innovation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 9.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 9 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 9 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 311 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-09.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-09.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 109563 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450138907 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund understands that access to technologies and resilient infrastructure may have a long-lasting impact on inclusive growth. Some SDG Fund programmes include infrastructure and technology elements to bring opportunities to the most vulnerable and those left out of inclusive value chains.

For example,

  • In Nigeria, the SDG Fund is working to promote food security and nutrition and alleviate poverty through strengthening the agro-food value chains, improving agricultural productivity and yields and promoting access to markets. The programme will establish a food processing facility and help it transition into an independent centre, capable of covering its own costs with a hybrid, public-private ownership structure. The centre will serve as a one-stop-shop training facility and Centre of Excellence providing vocational training in agriculture and agro-processing.
  • In Samoa, the SDG Fund is supporting the construction of an organic food processing facility. Young people, including vulnerable youth, are being trained to find job opportunities in organic production and processing within the key economic sectors of agriculture and tourism.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund understands that access to technologies and resilient infrastructure may have a long-lasting impact on inclusive growth. Some SDG Fund programmes include infrastructure and technology elements to bring opportunities to the most vulnerable and those left out of inclusive value chains.

For example,

  • In Nigeria, the SDG Fund is working to promote food security and nutrition and alleviate poverty through strengthening the agro-food value chains, improving agricultural productivity and yields and promoting access to markets. The programme will establish a food processing facility and help it transition into an independent centre, capable of covering its own costs with a hybrid, public-private ownership structure. The centre will serve as a one-stop-shop training facility and Centre of Excellence providing vocational training in agriculture and agro-processing.
  • In Samoa, the SDG Fund is supporting the construction of an organic food processing facility. Young people, including vulnerable youth, are being trained to find job opportunities in organic production and processing within the key economic sectors of agriculture and tourism.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
  • Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
  • Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
  • By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
  • Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
  • Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 18
  • Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
  • Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
  • Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
  • Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
  • By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
  • Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
  • Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 18
  • Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
  • Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 9 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 9 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [4] => Array ( [target_id] => 245 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 5491 [uid] => 1 [title] => Goal 13: Climate action [log] => sysadmin replaced http://www.sdgfund.org with http://www.sdgfund.org via Scanner Search and Replace module. [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 245 [type] => sdg [language] => en [created] => 1450139877 [changed] => 1517561646 [tnid] => 245 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1517561646 [revision_uid] => 1 [field_icon] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 322 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons_NoText-13.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons_NoText-13.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 56809 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450139877 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action.

Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 13.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action.

Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 13.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 13 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 13 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 323 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-13.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-13.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 72657 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450139877 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.

The following criteria are essential elements observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

For example,

  • In Cuba, the SDG Fund is strengthening resilience and improving access to water in tackling the impacts of recent droughts, noted as the worst in recent history, affecting more than one million people.
  • In Fiji, a SDG Fund programme is building the capacity of young farmers in organic agriculture for climate resilience.  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.

The following criteria are essential elements observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

For example,

  • In Cuba, the SDG Fund is strengthening resilience and improving access to water in tackling the impacts of recent droughts, noted as the worst in recent history, affecting more than one million people.
  • In Fiji, a SDG Fund programme is building the capacity of young farmers in organic agriculture for climate resilience.  Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
  • Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
  • Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
  • Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
  • Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

) ) ) [field_sdg_targets_headline] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Goal 13 targets [format] => [safe_value] => Goal 13 targets ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_thematic_area] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 53 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 4669 [uid] => 1 [title] => Inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 53 [type] => thematic_area [language] => en [created] => 1421393540 [changed] => 1499981169 [tnid] => 53 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1499981169 [revision_uid] => 1 [body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights.

Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all. This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post-2015 agenda.

A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:

  • Skills development
  • Supportive policies towards micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • The capacity to innovate and absorb new technologies
  • The ability to produce a higher quality and greater range of products
  • Infrastructure and other investments

Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. Business wants a level playing field and to be connected to major markets. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption.

Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, the SDG Fund will work with mineral extractive industries to generate economic growth and opportunities for the whole population. For example, in Mozambique, analysis indicates that the 5 largest projects in the country with an invesment of USD $3.4 billion, will generate only 33,000 direct jobs.
  • In Bangladesh and in Tanzania, the SDG Fund will contribute to the construction of the social protection systems and universal social safety nets, with special attention to the poorest women.
  • In Honduras the SDG-F will support the generation of income through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • The armed conflict in Colombia has damaged production, institutions, food security, and social trust. Through the sustainable agricultural production of indigenous crops and their international commercialization, the SDG-F will create employment, ways of life, better nutrition, and, most importantly, peace in Cauca - one of the zones most affected by the long lasting conflict.
  • In Peru the SDG Fund will contribute to establishing an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increase of demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.



Current SDG Fund inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication programmes:

CountryProgramme TitleParticipating UN AgenciesTotal Budget  ($)
BangladeshStrengthening Women’s Ability for Productive New Opportunities (SWAPNO)UNDP,  ILO

4,613,000

ColombiaProductive and food secured territories for a peaceful and resilient population in strategic ecosystems in CaucaUNDP, UN Women, FAO, WFP

3,281,152

EthiopiaGender Equality and Women Empowerment - Rural Women Economic EmpowermentUN Women, FAO, IFAD, WFP

3,000,000

HondurasPromotion of Culture and Tourism for Local Development in Ruta LencaUNDP, UN Women

2,919,427

Côte d'Ivoire

Poverty reduction in San Pedro region

UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, UNFPA

3,310,000

MozambiqueMore and better jobs in Cabo Delgado province and Nampula province - Harnessing the opportunities of the New Economy in MozambiqueILO, UNDP, UNIDO, UN Women

3,000,000

occupied Palestinian territoryCreating one-stop-shop to create sustainable businesses” on Inclusive Economic Growth.UN Women, FAO, ITC

3,000,000

Peru

Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development of Andean Grain producers in rural areas of extreme poverty in Ayacucho and PunoILO, FAO, UNESCO

3,880,790

Sierra LeoneEnabling Sustainable Livelihoods Through Improved Natural Resource Governance and Economic Diversification in the Kono District, Sierra LeoneUNDP, FAO

3,002,000

TanzaniaJoint programme to support Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN)UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, ILO

4,358,250

 

Total

34,364,619

Previous programmes:

Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods. Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. 

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights.

Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all. This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post-2015 agenda.

A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:

  • Skills development
  • Supportive policies towards micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • The capacity to innovate and absorb new technologies
  • The ability to produce a higher quality and greater range of products
  • Infrastructure and other investments

Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. Business wants a level playing field and to be connected to major markets. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption.

Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:

  1. Create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods
  2. Support inclusive and sustainable business practices
  3. Promote better government policies and fair and accountable public institutions

For example:

  • In Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, the SDG Fund will work with mineral extractive industries to generate economic growth and opportunities for the whole population. For example, in Mozambique, analysis indicates that the 5 largest projects in the country with an invesment of USD $3.4 billion, will generate only 33,000 direct jobs.
  • In Bangladesh and in Tanzania, the SDG Fund will contribute to the construction of the social protection systems and universal social safety nets, with special attention to the poorest women.
  • In Honduras the SDG-F will support the generation of income through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of sustainable tourism micro businesses in the area, led by youth and women.
  • The armed conflict in Colombia has damaged production, institutions, food security, and social trust. Through the sustainable agricultural production of indigenous crops and their international commercialization, the SDG-F will create employment, ways of life, better nutrition, and, most importantly, peace in Cauca - one of the zones most affected by the long lasting conflict.
  • In Peru the SDG Fund will contribute to establishing an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increase of demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers.

Current SDG Fund inclusive economic growth for poverty eradication programmes:

Country Programme Title Participating UN Agencies Total Budget  ($)
Bangladesh Strengthening Women’s Ability for Productive New Opportunities (SWAPNO) UNDP,  ILO

4,613,000

Colombia Productive and food secured territories for a peaceful and resilient population in strategic ecosystems in Cauca UNDP, UN Women, FAO, WFP

3,281,152

Ethiopia Gender Equality and Women Empowerment - Rural Women Economic Empowerment UN Women, FAO, IFAD, WFP

3,000,000

Honduras Promotion of Culture and Tourism for Local Development in Ruta Lenca UNDP, UN Women

2,919,427

Côte d'Ivoire

Poverty reduction in San Pedro region

UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, UNFPA

3,310,000

Mozambique More and better jobs in Cabo Delgado province and Nampula province - Harnessing the opportunities of the New Economy in Mozambique ILO, UNDP, UNIDO, UN Women

3,000,000

occupied Palestinian territory Creating one-stop-shop to create sustainable businesses” on Inclusive Economic Growth. UN Women, FAO, ITC

3,000,000

Peru

Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development of Andean Grain producers in rural areas of extreme poverty in Ayacucho and Puno ILO, FAO, UNESCO

3,880,790

Sierra Leone Enabling Sustainable Livelihoods Through Improved Natural Resource Governance and Economic Diversification in the Kono District, Sierra Leone UNDP, FAO

3,002,000

Tanzania Joint programme to support Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN) UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, ILO

4,358,250

 

Total

34,364,619

Previous programmes:

Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods. Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. 

[safe_summary] => ) ) ) [field_short_description] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Creating decent jobs, secure livelihoods and promoting inclusive sustainable practices. [format] => [safe_value] => Creating decent jobs, secure livelihoods and promoting inclusive sustainable practices. ) ) ) [field_icon_class] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => fa fa-line-chart [format] => [safe_value] => fa fa-line-chart ) ) ) [field_subtitle] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication.
Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication. Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 5 [uid] => 1 [filename] => boosting-rural-incomes-in-vietnam.jpg [uri] => public://boosting-rural-incomes-in-vietnam.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 125480 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1065 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1065 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => area_of_work ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) [1] => Array ( [target_id] => 56 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 4671 [uid] => 1 [title] => Sustainability [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 56 [type] => thematic_area [language] => en [created] => 1421393790 [changed] => 1499981249 [tnid] => 56 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1499981249 [revision_uid] => 1 [body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving.

The SDG Fund definition involves:

  1. Inclusion and participation in programme initiatives within the vision of a Human Rights-based approach
  2. Economic use of resources in programme implementation
  3. Sustainability of programme achievements after termination of activities
  4. Mainstreaming environment and climate change in development programmes

For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:

  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project under consideration could be vulnerable to risks arising from climate variability and change
  • The extent to which climate change risks have already been taken into consideration
  • The extent to which the policy, plan, or project could inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability and maladaptation or miss important opportunities arising from climate change

The following publications offer useful guidance for introducing environmental sustainability and climate change sensitivity into development programmes:

See also this list of references from the UNFCCC on how to mainstream climate change into development programming.

[safe_summary] => ) ) ) [field_short_description] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains. [format] => [safe_value] => Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains. ) ) ) [field_icon_class] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => fa fa-recycle [format] => [safe_value] => fa fa-recycle ) ) ) [field_subtitle] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Embedding sustainable principles in all our projects and ensuring long-term development gains

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 8 [uid] => 1 [filename] => Nicaragua-environment-woman-at-well.jpg [uri] => public://Nicaragua-environment-woman-at-well.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 137912 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1183 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1183 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => crosscuting_issue ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_downloads] => Array ( ) [field_delivering_as_one] => Array ( ) [field_country_entity] => Array ( ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Sub-Saharan Africa is at a critical point, experiencing rapid population growth, particularly in urban areas, and a young and growing workforce. At the same time, the growing risk of catastrophic global climate change threatens to weaken food production systems; increase the intensity and frequency of droughts, floods, and fires; and undermine gains in development and poverty reduction. Although the region has the lowest per capita greenhouse gas emission levels in the world, it will need to join global efforts to address climate change, including through actions to avoid significant increases in emissions. This report reviews agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, extractives, construction and manufacturing, based on their importance to countries' economic development and their contribution to current and future greenhouse gas emissions. Based on this sector-specific analysis, we identify 20 cross-sector transitions that can be undertaken to promote low-carbon development in the region. [format] => [safe_value] => Sub-Saharan Africa is at a critical point, experiencing rapid population growth, particularly in urban areas, and a young and growing workforce. At the same time, the growing risk of catastrophic global climate change threatens to weaken food production systems; increase the intensity and frequency of droughts, floods, and fires; and undermine gains in development and poverty reduction. Although the region has the lowest per capita greenhouse gas emission levels in the world, it will need to join global efforts to address climate change, including through actions to avoid significant increases in emissions. This report reviews agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, extractives, construction and manufacturing, based on their importance to countries' economic development and their contribution to current and future greenhouse gas emissions. Based on this sector-specific analysis, we identify 20 cross-sector transitions that can be undertaken to promote low-carbon development in the region. ) ) ) [field_year] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => 2015-01-01 00:00:00 [timezone] => America/New_York [timezone_db] => America/New_York [date_type] => datetime ) ) ) [field_publication_keywords] => Array ( ) [field_publisher] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => ODI [format] => [safe_value] => ODI ) ) ) [field_region] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [target_id] => 262 [entity] => stdClass Object ( [vid] => 1022 [uid] => 1 [title] => Africa [log] => [status] => 1 [comment] => 1 [promote] => 0 [sticky] => 0 [nid] => 262 [type] => region [language] => en [created] => 1450896564 [changed] => 1450896564 [tnid] => 262 [translate] => 0 [revision_timestamp] => 1450896564 [revision_uid] => 1 [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_thumb] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 1584 [uid] => 1 [filename] => 9878-1.jpg [uri] => public://9878-1.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 91753 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1485852943 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 841 [width] => 595 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 841 [width] => 595 ) ) ) [field_featured] => Array ( ) [field_file_fr] => Array ( ) [field_file_ar] => Array ( ) [field_file_pt] => Array ( ) [field_file_es] => Array ( ) [field_external_link] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9878.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9878.pdf ) ) ) [field_external_link_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => External Link [format] => [safe_value] => External Link ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => Library Manager 1 [picture] => 0 [data] => a:1:{s:7:"contact";i:0;} [entity_view_prepared] => 1 ) [#items] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9878.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9878.pdf ) ) [#formatter] => text_plain [0] => Array ( [#markup] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9878.pdf ) [#description] => Please enter the full URL, e.g. http://www.example.com [#printed] => 1 )