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Goal 10: Reduced inequalities

Goal 10: Reduced inequalities


Reduce inequality within and among countries

It is well documented that income inequality is on the rise, with the richest 10 percent earning up to 40 percent of total global income. The poorest 10 percent earn only between 2 and 7 percent of total global income. In developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent if we take into account the growth of population.

These widening disparities are a call for action that require the adoption of sound policies to empower the bottom percentile of income earners and promote economic inclusion of all regardless of sex, race or ethnicity.

Income inequality is a global problem that requires global solutions. This involves improving the regulation and monitoring of financial markets and institutions, encouraging development assistance and foreign direct investment to regions where the need is greatest. Facilitating the safe migration and mobility of people is also key to bridging the widening divide.

Reducing inequalities is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 10.


  • By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
  • By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
  • Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
  • Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
  • Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
  • Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
  • Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
  • Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
  • Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
  • By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund programmes undertake situation analysis to understand what inequalities underpin the challenges in the communities and countries where we work. By doing this, the programmes pay special attention to inequalities suffered by women, girls, indigenous people, older people, youth, and those living in geographical isolated communities. Our initiatives take inequalities into account and put into practice solutions to address them, responding to the 2030 Agenda’s mandate of leaving no one behind.

For example,

  • In Tanzania, the SDG Fund is working with the national government to scale-up one of its existing national programmes to reach all the extreme poor living below the food poverty line. In particular, it’s targeting women, children, youth, elderly, people living with disabilities and people living with HIV and AIDS. The programme employs conditional cash transfers, promoting employment through public works programmes, family planning awareness and primary and secondary school education.
  • In Bangladesh, the SDG Fund is working with ultra-poor women, particularly with those who are widowed, divorced or abandoned.  The programme is supporting the most vulnerable households to move out of poverty through public works jobs, education and financial literacy.
  • In Paraguay, the SDG Fund is supporting the government’s efforts to find integrated solutions to undernutrition and to address other health problems faced by indigenous and vulnerable rural households, particularly female-headed ones, to produce nutritious and diversified food production.

SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 10

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Bangladesh

Strengthening women’s ability for productive new opportunities (SWAPNO)

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Guatemala

Food and nutrition security of the department of San Marcos

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Paraguay

Paraguay protects, promotes and facilitates effective implementation of the right to food security and nutrition

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Peru

Economic inclusion and sustainable development of Andean grain producers in Ayacucho and Puno

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Tanzania

Joint programme to support Tanzania’s productive social safety nets (PSSN)

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