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Sanitation under stress: how can urban services respond to acute migration?

Published by: ODI


About

This working paper aims to identify key research questions around the successes and failures of urban governance structures in delivering essential services to populations following large migration movements. It does so through a review of the existing literature on the subject. It then unpacks how conflict-induced migration has affected Jordan’s urban infrastructure and systems for the provision of basic services. In conclusion, we call for a research agenda that can help utilities, governments, non-governmental organisations and other service providers to better understand and overcome the challenges of sanitation provision in urban contexts ‘under stress’, without reinforcing existing inequalities or creating new ones, and to progress towards realising the Sustainable Development Goals’ aspirations for ‘universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation’ by 2030.

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General Information

SDGs Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
Published
2016
Thematic Area
Water and sanitation
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Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a consequence of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent.

In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress; ten of them are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on non-conventional sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already exacerbating these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages.

Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if we are to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries.  

Universal access to clean water and sanitation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 6.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a consequence of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent.

In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress; ten of them are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on non-conventional sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already exacerbating these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages.

Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if we are to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries.  

Universal access to clean water and sanitation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 6.

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The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  • Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  • Ensuring healthy lives
  • Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

For example,

  • The Colombian Massif region is home to the most important watershed in the country. It’s also one of the largest reserves of fresh water in equatorial areas worldwide. Despite being designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, deforestation coupled with conflict, the emergence of illicit crops, and deregulated agricultural borders of indigenous rural communities in the last decade have deteriorated the region. In order to better assess the current state of water resources in the area and stimulate a major regional agreement for water, the SDG Fund is working with administrations, community councils, community aqueduct consumer boards, indigenous rural representatives and the education sector. The aim is to develop protection plans for the watershed and surrounding forests, and provide technical cooperation towards integrated water management.
  • In the Philippines, the joint programme builds on the experiences and gains of previous programmes on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.
  • In Sri Lanka, the SDG Fund programme is carrying out surveys to gather data on the water and sanitation services availabile at all 10,000 schools. With this information, the Ministry of Education will ensure that all schools and students have access to clean water and sanitation, which is key to improve educational outcomes and nutrition status of students.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  • Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  • Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  • Ensuring healthy lives
  • Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

For example,

  • The Colombian Massif region is home to the most important watershed in the country. It’s also one of the largest reserves of fresh water in equatorial areas worldwide. Despite being designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, deforestation coupled with conflict, the emergence of illicit crops, and deregulated agricultural borders of indigenous rural communities in the last decade have deteriorated the region. In order to better assess the current state of water resources in the area and stimulate a major regional agreement for water, the SDG Fund is working with administrations, community councils, community aqueduct consumer boards, indigenous rural representatives and the education sector. The aim is to develop protection plans for the watershed and surrounding forests, and provide technical cooperation towards integrated water management.
  • In the Philippines, the joint programme builds on the experiences and gains of previous programmes on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.
  • In Sri Lanka, the SDG Fund programme is carrying out surveys to gather data on the water and sanitation services availabile at all 10,000 schools. With this information, the Ministry of Education will ensure that all schools and students have access to clean water and sanitation, which is key to improve educational outcomes and nutrition status of students.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
  • By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
  • By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  • By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
  • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
  • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
  • Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
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  • By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
  • By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
  • By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  • By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
  • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
  • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
  • Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
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Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

More than half of the world’s population now live in urban areas. By 2050, that figure will have risen to 6.5 billion people – two-thirds of humanity. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we build and manage our urban spaces.

The rapid growth of cities in the developing world, coupled with increasing rural to urban migration, has led to a boom in mega-cities. In 1990, there were ten mega-cities with 10 million inhabitants or more. In 2014, there are 28 mega-cities, home to a total 453 million people.

Extreme poverty is often concentrated in urban spaces, and national and city governments struggle to accommodate the rising population in these areas. Making cities safe and sustainable means ensuring access to safe and affordable housing, and upgrading slum settlements. It also involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in a way that is both participatory and inclusive.

Sustainable city life is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 11.

[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

More than half of the world’s population now live in urban areas. By 2050, that figure will have risen to 6.5 billion people – two-thirds of humanity. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we build and manage our urban spaces.

The rapid growth of cities in the developing world, coupled with increasing rural to urban migration, has led to a boom in mega-cities. In 1990, there were ten mega-cities with 10 million inhabitants or more. In 2014, there are 28 mega-cities, home to a total 453 million people.

Extreme poverty is often concentrated in urban spaces, and national and city governments struggle to accommodate the rising population in these areas. Making cities safe and sustainable means ensuring access to safe and affordable housing, and upgrading slum settlements. It also involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in a way that is both participatory and inclusive.

Sustainable city life is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

Learn more about the targets for Goal 11.

) ) ) [field_the_sdgf_work] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 11 [format] => [safe_value] => SDG Fund’s programmes contributing to SDG 11 ) ) ) [field_icon_with_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 317 [uid] => 1 [filename] => E_SDG_Icons-11.jpg [uri] => public://E_SDG_Icons-11.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 105578 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1450139529 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 466 [width] => 466 ) ) ) [field_the_sdg_fund_response] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The UN Development System, through joint collaboration, can contribute to:

  • promote sustainable urban local and national policies,
  • support better spatial planning and design, to “optimize density, connectivity and diversity”
  • advocate for a more equitable financing of urban initiatives.

For example,

  • In April 2016 at the UN headquarters in New York, the SDG Fund hosted the Pritzker Architecture Prizeand brought together renowned architects such as Alejandro Aravena, Glenn Murcutt, Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, Wang Shu, Thom Mayne, Richard Meier, and Christian de Portzamparc to explore links between contemporary society and the role of architecture to improve livelihoods. The SDG Fund is working to engage leading world architects in social housing.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
  • In Honduras, the SDG-F supports the protection of the cultural and natural heritage in the Ruta Lenca. The programme aims at sustaining culture and heritage for the Lenca people by generating income opportunities through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of micro-businesses in the area, led by youth and women, geared towards sustainable tourism.
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

The SDG Fund response

The UN Development System, through joint collaboration, can contribute to:

  • promote sustainable urban local and national policies,
  • support better spatial planning and design, to “optimize density, connectivity and diversity”
  • advocate for a more equitable financing of urban initiatives.

For example,

  • In April 2016 at the UN headquarters in New York, the SDG Fund hosted the Pritzker Architecture Prizeand brought together renowned architects such as Alejandro Aravena, Glenn Murcutt, Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, Wang Shu, Thom Mayne, Richard Meier, and Christian de Portzamparc to explore links between contemporary society and the role of architecture to improve livelihoods. The SDG Fund is working to engage leading world architects in social housing.
  • In Mozambique, the SDG Fund is providing training opportunities on green construction using traditional techniques and materials. The objective is to create residences that are less expensive while also preserving the environment.
  • In Honduras, the SDG-F supports the protection of the cultural and natural heritage in the Ruta Lenca. The programme aims at sustaining culture and heritage for the Lenca people by generating income opportunities through the revitalization of the Lenca culture and the development of micro-businesses in the area, led by youth and women, geared towards sustainable tourism.
) ) ) [field_targets] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>
  • By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
  • By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
  • By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
  • Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
  • By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
  • By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
  • Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
  • By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
  • Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
[format] => full_html [safe_value] =>
  • By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
  • By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
  • By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
  • Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
  • By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
  • By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
  • By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
  • Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
  • By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
  • Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
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Access to water is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Safe drinking water is a scarce and limited resource. Better water resource management and governance can ensure there will be enough water to meet increasing demand. We need to establish good management practices, responsible regulation, and proper pricing.

Improving access – as well as quality – is becoming more urgent as the world faces increasing water scarcity. People living in poverty are likely to be most at risk. Good governance of water and sanitation services ensures that the voices of the poor and vulnerable are heard.

Globally, 768 million people drink unsafe water. 1.8 billion people’s drinking water source is contaminated. 2.5 billion people have no access to hygienic sanitation facilities, and half of those have no sanitation facilities at all.

The Post-2015 consultation resulted in a call for action to ensure universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centres and refugee camps. This is a global minimum standard that should be applied to everyone.

Despite progress towards the water MDG, much more needs to be done. Improving water and sanitation would have a large impact on advancing overall human development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund, following the experience of its precursor the MDG Fund, brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  2. Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  3. Ensuring healthy lives
  4. Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

The joint programme in the Philippines builds on the experiences and gains of two previously MDG-F implemented ones, on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.

 


[summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

Access to water is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Safe drinking water is a scarce and limited resource. Better water resource management and governance can ensure there will be enough water to meet increasing demand. We need to establish good management practices, responsible regulation, and proper pricing.

Improving access – as well as quality – is becoming more urgent as the world faces increasing water scarcity. People living in poverty are likely to be most at risk. Good governance of water and sanitation services ensures that the voices of the poor and vulnerable are heard.

Globally, 768 million people drink unsafe water. 1.8 billion people’s drinking water source is contaminated. 2.5 billion people have no access to hygienic sanitation facilities, and half of those have no sanitation facilities at all.

The Post-2015 consultation resulted in a call for action to ensure universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centres and refugee camps. This is a global minimum standard that should be applied to everyone.

Despite progress towards the water MDG, much more needs to be done. Improving water and sanitation would have a large impact on advancing overall human development.

The SDG Fund response

The SDG Fund, following the experience of its precursor the MDG Fund, brings together partners working on convergent aspects of water and sanitation: infrastructure, governance, health, education, environmental protection, and gender equality.

SDG Fund programmes apply a multisectoral approach to the problem of water and sanitation and include the following key dimensions:

  1. Promotion of democratic and transparent water and sanitation governance systems
  2. Improving access to water and sanitation services for the poor and marginalised
  3. Ensuring healthy lives
  4. Promoting integrated water governance and climate change adaptation.

The joint programme in the Philippines builds on the experiences and gains of two previously MDG-F implemented ones, on water and sanitation and on climate change adaptation.  It aims to empower citizens, especially women and girls, and communities with access to sustainable safe water and sanitation services.

 


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Good governance of water resources is a crucial factor
in achieving sustainable development.

[format] => filtered_html [safe_value] =>

Good governance of water resources is a crucial factor in achieving sustainable development.

) ) ) [field_image] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 7 [uid] => 1 [filename] => Philippines-Erwin-Lim-Til-the-Last-Drop.jpg [uri] => public://Philippines-Erwin-Lim-Til-the-Last-Drop.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 152538 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1449239930 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 1067 [width] => 1600 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 1067 [width] => 1600 ) ) ) [field_type] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => crosscuting_issue ) ) ) [field_paragraphs] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [path] => Array ( [pathauto] => 1 ) [name] => sysadmin [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} ) [access] => 1 ) ) ) [field_downloads] => Array ( ) [field_delivering_as_one] => Array ( ) [field_country_entity] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [iso2] => JO [value] => JO [country] => Entity Object ( [entityType:protected] => country [entityInfo:protected] => Array ( [label] => Country [entity class] => Entity [controller class] => EntityAPIControllerExportable [base table] => countries_country [fieldable] => 1 [module] => countries [entity keys] => Array ( [id] => cid [name] => iso2 [label] => name [revision] => [bundle] => ) [bundles] => Array ( [country] => Array ( [label] => Country [admin] => Array ( [path] => admin/config/regional/countries [access arguments] => Array ( [0] => administer site configuration ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) ) [view modes] => Array ( [full] => Array ( [label] => Country [custom settings] => ) [token] => Array ( [label] => Tokens [custom settings] => ) ) [static cache] => 1 [field cache] => 1 [load hook] => country_load [translation] => Array ( ) [base table field types] => Array ( [cid] => serial [iso2] => char [iso3] => char [name] => varchar [official_name] => varchar [numcode] => int [continent] => char [enabled] => int [language] => varchar ) [schema_fields_sql] => Array ( [base table] => Array ( [0] => cid [1] => iso2 [2] => iso3 [3] => name [4] => official_name [5] => numcode [6] => continent [7] => enabled [8] => language ) ) [label callback] => countries_i18n_country_entity_label [token type] => country [configuration] => ) [idKey:protected] => cid [nameKey:protected] => iso2 [statusKey:protected] => status [defaultLabel:protected] => [wrapper:protected] => [cid] => 114 [iso2] => JO [iso3] => JOR [name] => Jordan [official_name] => Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan [numcode] => 400 [continent] => AS [enabled] => 1 [language] => und [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) ) [safe_value] => Jordan [safe] => Jordan ) ) ) [field_body] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => This working paper aims to identify key research questions around the successes and failures of urban governance structures in delivering essential services to populations following large migration movements. It does so through a review of the existing literature on the subject. It then unpacks how conflict-induced migration has affected Jordan’s urban infrastructure and systems for the provision of basic services. In conclusion, we call for a research agenda that can help utilities, governments, non-governmental organisations and other service providers to better understand and overcome the challenges of sanitation provision in urban contexts ‘under stress’, without reinforcing existing inequalities or creating new ones, and to progress towards realising the Sustainable Development Goals’ aspirations for ‘universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation’ by 2030. [format] => [safe_value] => This working paper aims to identify key research questions around the successes and failures of urban governance structures in delivering essential services to populations following large migration movements. It does so through a review of the existing literature on the subject. It then unpacks how conflict-induced migration has affected Jordan’s urban infrastructure and systems for the provision of basic services. In conclusion, we call for a research agenda that can help utilities, governments, non-governmental organisations and other service providers to better understand and overcome the challenges of sanitation provision in urban contexts ‘under stress’, without reinforcing existing inequalities or creating new ones, and to progress towards realising the Sustainable Development Goals’ aspirations for ‘universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation’ by 2030. ) ) ) [field_year] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => 2016-01-01 00:00:00 [timezone] => America/New_York [timezone_db] => America/New_York [date_type] => datetime ) ) ) [field_publication_keywords] => Array ( ) [field_publisher] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => ODI [format] => [safe_value] => ODI ) ) ) [field_region] => Array ( ) [field_thumb] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 1642 [uid] => 1 [filename] => 11086-1.jpg [uri] => public://11086-1.jpg [filemime] => image/jpeg [filesize] => 80632 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1485989336 [type] => image [field_file_image_alt_text] => Array ( ) [field_file_image_title_text] => Array ( ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( ) [metadata] => Array ( [height] => 841 [width] => 595 ) [alt] => [title] => [height] => 841 [width] => 595 ) ) ) [field_featured] => Array ( ) [field_file_fr] => Array ( ) [field_file_ar] => Array ( ) [field_file_pt] => Array ( ) [field_file_es] => Array ( ) [field_external_link] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11086.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11086.pdf ) ) ) [field_external_link_text] => Array ( [und] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => External Link [format] => [safe_value] => External Link ) ) ) [rdf_mapping] => Array ( [rdftype] => Array ( [0] => sioc:Item [1] => foaf:Document ) [title] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:title ) ) [created] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:date [1] => dc:created ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [changed] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => dc:modified ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) [body] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => content:encoded ) ) [uid] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:has_creator ) [type] => rel ) [name] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => foaf:name ) ) [comment_count] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:num_replies ) [datatype] => xsd:integer ) [last_activity] => Array ( [predicates] => Array ( [0] => sioc:last_activity_date ) [datatype] => xsd:dateTime [callback] => date_iso8601 ) ) [name] => Library Manager 1 [picture] => 0 [data] => a:2:{s:7:"contact";i:0;s:7:"overlay";i:1;} [entity_view_prepared] => 1 ) [#items] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11086.pdf [format] => [safe_value] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11086.pdf ) ) [#formatter] => text_plain [0] => Array ( [#markup] => https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11086.pdf ) [#description] => Please enter the full URL, e.g. http://www.example.com [#printed] => 1 )