The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using a joint programme (JP) mode of intervention sponsored 20 programmes, on conflict prevention and peace building, with an allocation of US$ 94 million. This report focused on the Window on Conflict Prevention and Peace Building. The programmes in this window sought to contribute to the achievement of the goals through interventions tackling conflict prevention and violence reduction, livelihood improvements against youth violence, and the fostering of dialogue and equity. One common premise was ensuring that people knew and exerted their rights as an important component of a peace building and conflict prevention strategy. A key feature of this window was that the results were very country/region and context specific (as in the good examples of Mexico, Serbia and Colombia, for example). What the ‘successes’ share is a focus on community needs and specific needs in a specific setting that make it challenging to be replicated in other contexts; as the analysis in the report shows, there are some commonalities by theme.