Even though many African governments have ratified international and regional human rights treaties and have made commitments to respect, promote and protect women's rights and to eliminate discrimination against women, the translation of these commitments into national laws, policies and programmes remains a challenge. As a response, UN Women has developed this manual as a methodological tool to promote the adoption and use of a multi-sectoral approach to achieve women's rights. Through practical guidance, the manual aims to support the African Union and its member states to fast track delivery on commitments to women's rights and empowerment. It introduces an implementation framework that promotes the integration of women's rights into all sectors of government and development endeavours. The framework also calls for inter-ministerial coordination to ensure improved efficiency, accountability, and communication across sectors; the establishment of a strong technical and advisory services unit at the regional and national levels; and an important and strengthened role for national machineries for women's affairs. Overall, the manual stresses the important role of government-led partnerships, such as with the African Union, donor countries, the United Nations system, civil society, organizations and unions, to make women's rights a reality.
The training manual aims to build the gender analysis capacity of those working in the field of migration and development to bring about a model of development that is centered on people, human rights, and on the principle of gender equality. It also offers a series of tools to help design programmes and policies that strengthen the positive effects of migration in terms of development, both in origin and destination countries. The manual, which is available in English and Spanish, is divided into a facilitator’s guide and four training guides, each of which has a self-directed learning section and an activities section for designing face-to-face trainings. The manual aims to provoke thinking and action around migration and development from a gender and rights-based perspective, bringing to the fore migration for care, the importance of putting the right to care on the development agenda, and migrant women’s rights. The manual is divided into the following sections: 1. Introduction to Gender, Migration, and Development; 2. Impact of Remittances on Local Economies in Origin Countries from a Gender Perspective; 3. Global Care Chains; 4. Migration Policies and Migrant Women’s Rights
Twenty years ago in Rio de Janiero, UN Member States unanimously agreed that “women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development. Twenty years later, we still have a long way to go. In this publication UN Women highlights the commitments made on gender equality, and explores women's contributions to sustainable development and policy around the world. Focusing on priority areas—safe drinking water and sanitation; food security and sustainable agriculture; sustainable cities; decent work and the green economy; health and education—it details the actions needed to establish a gender-responsive development framework, and ensure an enabling environment for women's full participation in sustainable development.
This Briefing Kit is informed by the experience of struggle, resilience and creative practice of local and overseas domestic workers and their support groups. It is an invitation to governments and all of us to implement protections for domestic workers. The kit makes a compelling normative and development case for protecting domestic workers, based on interviews with governments, workers and employers from Bolivia, New York State in the USA, the Philippines and South Africa. It outlines the normative framework to promote and protect the rights of domestic workers and demonstrates how this can be operationalized, drawing on promising national practice worldwide, that embodies these standards and lessons learned from the same.
Drawing on household survey data collected in Egypt, Ghana and Bangladesh as part of the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment Research Partners’ Consortium, this report provides insights into the ‘resource’ pathways that enhance women’s agency and thereby contribute to the inclusiveness of the economic growth process. Moreover, it looks at the the extent to which the structure of economic opportunities, generated by a country’s growth strategies, translated into positive impacts on women’s lives in these three country contexts. Briefly, the findings suggest that economic growth alone does not promote gender equality. Rather, unless patterns of growth generate reasonable quality jobs for women, the extent to which greater gender equality is achieved will depend on the actions of the state and civil society. Greater gender equality, in turn, does have the potential to contribute to inclusive growth when it is achieved in education, employment and other valued resources. In particular, women’s access to valued resources, such as decent jobs and higher education, can have positive distributional implications for growth.
This report was launched at the first Global Human Development Forum which brought together high-level experts from governments, corporations, civil society and international organizations to examine the global policy changes required to ensure a sustainable future for people today and for generations to come. The report, supported by 13 UN agencies, calls for a transformation to integrated policy making, where social equity, economic growth and environmental protection are approached together. The report calls for: 1) Removing fossil fuel subsidies to send the right signal to both businesses and households; 2) Establishing a social protection floor, in part to ensure the poorest are not hurt by the removal of fossil fuel subsidies; 3) Investing in green and decent job creation for women and men in the sectors where there is greatest opportunity in the region: renewables, recycling, energy efficient housing, and sustainable transport.
This paper examines issues of women’s employment and decent work in the context of the on-going global financial and economic crisis. Recognizing that financial and economic crises affect men and women workers differently for various reasons, it considers the implications of the crisis for women workers in formal, informal and unpaid activities. Analysis of some specific regional crises shows how crisis response strategies can have different impacts depending on how gender sensitive they are. Additionally, it shows how policy responses that take into account the differentiated impact on women workers are more likely to result in sustained and equitable recovery.
This brief synthesizes research findings, analysis and policy recommendations for realizing the triple dividend from early childhood education and care (ECEC) services.
ECEC services have come to occupy an important place on the global policy agenda. While some developed countries have long invested in this area, a growing number of developing countries are following suit. As those who carry out the bulk of childcare—as unpaid caregivers as well as service providers in day-care and preschool institutions—women have a huge stake in this issue. However, the implications for women, as mothers or childcare workers, have been insufficiently reflected in the work of international organizations and many national-level policies that tend to focus mainly on children.Well-designed investments in ECEC services can have major economic and social pay-offs for families, individuals and societies at large by: (a) facilitating women’s labour force participation, (b) enhancing children’s capabilities and (c) creating decent jobs in the paid care sector. But this triple dividend is not automatic. It needs to be built into service design and delivery. This brief discusses different mechanisms for financing, delivering and regulating ECEC services and highlights promising avenues for realizing the triple dividend. It argues that the key is high-quality childcare that is available, affordable, accessible and compatible with the needs of working parents.
UN Women's Transforming our Future series introduces brief thematic documents with the goal of raising awareness on the importance of addressing such problems as inequality, the legal framework that mandates women's human rights protection, as well as to promote solutions from all areas of society. This leaflet presents central international instruments for the protection of the human rights of women migrant workers, and describes the link between gender and migration.
Sixty-five years after ILO Convention no. 100 on equal remuneration, the gender pay gap remains pervasive across all regions and most sectors, and policy debate continues on how to close it. Policy attention has focused on women’s own behaviour and choices, but women have been investing more in their education and participating more continuously in employment without reaping the expected benefits. It is time to focus instead on changing the environment in which women are making choices. This brief focuses on policies needed to change employment arrangements. This would involve: 1) raising and extending floor under wages to reduce the penalties associated with being at the bottom of the wage hierarchy; 2) improving the valuation of women’s work through strengthening legal and collective regulation; 3) extending gender pay audits and action plans; 4) improving women’s employment opportunities by developing progression opportunities in female-dominated jobs and sectors, and 5) enabling mothers to remain in, or return to, employment.
Policies to close the gender pay gap need to be developed in tandem with policies to reduce inequality overall, promote social justice and extend state support to working parents.
This brief is one in a three-part research series produced by UN Women’s Fund for Gender Equality (FGE) – a global gender equality fund which awards competitive grants and technical assistance to women-led civil society organizations around the world. Focusing on grantee case studies in Sudan, this brief offers a more nuanced look at the real-time opportunities and barriers to women’s economic empowerment in fragile contexts, including what is working, what is not and what is needed to help women realize greater empowerment, equality and inclusive development. Through area-based research and a compilation of grantee good practices and lessons learned, this brief offers insight into the local gender dimensions of fragility and a set of recommendations to help scale strategies and interventions that work for women and their communities. In this series, the FGE also presents: 1) Findings of the FGE’s perceptions survey research, conducted in 2015 with over 1,200 rural, displaced and refugee women in Guinea, Lebanon and Sudan; 2) A programme-oriented framework for understanding empowerment as a set of four components working together: productive resources, personal resources, institutional relations and interpersonal relations.
This brief is one in a three-part research series produced by UN Women’s Fund for Gender Equality (FGE) – a global gender equality fund which awards competitive grants and technical assistance to women-led civil society organizations around the world. Focusing on grantee case studies in Lebanon, this brief offers a more nuanced look at the real-time opportunities and barriers to women’s economic empowerment in fragile contexts, including what is working, what is not and what is needed to help women realize greater empowerment, equality and inclusive development. Through area-based research and a compilation of grantee good practices and lessons learned, this brief offers insight into the local gender dimensions of fragility and a set of recommendations to help scale strategies and interventions that work for women and their communities. In this series, the FGE also presents: 1) Findings of the FGE’s perceptions survey research, conducted in 2015 with over 1,200 rural, displaced and refugee women in Guinea, Lebanon and Sudan; 2) A programme-oriented framework for understanding empowerment as a set of four components working together: productive resources, personal resources, institutional relations and interpersonal relations.
This brief is one in a three-part research series produced by UN Women’s Fund for Gender Equality (FGE) – a global gender equality fund which awards competitive grants and technical assistance to women-led civil society organizations around the world. Focusing on grantee case studies in Guinea, this brief offers a more nuanced look at the real-time opportunities and barriers to women’s economic empowerment in fragile contexts, including what is working, what is not and what is needed to help women realize greater empowerment, equality and inclusive development. Through area-based research and a compilation of grantee good practices and lessons learned, this brief offers insight into the local gender dimensions of fragility and a set of recommendations to help scale strategies and interventions that work for women and their communities. In this series, the FGE also presents: 1) Findings of the FGE’s perceptions survey research, conducted in 2015 with over 1,200 rural, displaced and refugee women in Guinea, Lebanon and Sudan; 2) A programme-oriented framework for understanding empowerment as a set of four components working together: productive resources, personal resources, institutional relations and interpersonal relations
The messages in this document are envisaged to provide a common understanding for the UN system on how human rights can be integrated and should inform the planning and programming process as well as policy guidance for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The messages focus on: a) how to align the SDGs with the country’s existing human rights commitments; b) how to fulfill the pledge to ‘leave no one behind’ and ‘reach the furthest behind first’; c) how to ensure active and meaningful participation in the preparation of the national SDG action plans; and, d) how to build robust accountability frameworks in the implementation of these national plans.
The “One UN Initiative” in Viet Nam and the One Plan are in response to the Ha Noi Core Statement and, as outlined in the Report of the High-Level Panel on System-Wide Coherence, emphasize the need for the UN to move away from traditional service delivery and project implementation towards upstream policy advice. At the heart of the One Plan is the overall goal to enhance programmatic synergies amongst various UN interventions, eliminate any programmatic duplication and overlap, and deliver more effectively “as One”.
The purpose of the One Plan Annual Report is to provide the Government of Vietnam and development partners with an account of how the implementation of the One Plan progresses. The report includes concrete examples on how the joint planning and programming process has led to a stronger and more cohesive UN by moving towards upstream policy advice in a number of key cross- cutting areas. The report also provides details on how resources from the One Plan Fund were allocated against the five Outcomes and corresponding Outputs of the One Plan.
In pursuit of economic growth and poverty reduction, the Malawi Government has articulated development goals in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS, 2006-2011), to which the UN’s Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF, 2008-2011) is aligned.The Mid-Term Review provides an opportunity for the UN country team to assess collective performance in respect of ‘delivering as one.’ The review has been carried out as a participatory, self-evaluation exercise focusing on UN programs and processes over the past two years; current MGDS-UNDAF alignment; and expected results for UNDAF implementation 2010/2011.
This report covers the first year of implementation of the One Programme in Tanzania funded by the One UN Fund for Tanzania and Participating UN Agencies. The Joint Programmes approved and implemented during 2008 cover six programmatic areas and two further components have been developed for one office / change management and communication. This report consolidates the annual reports received from the Managing Agents of each of the Joint Programmes and the financial situation of the One Programme and the One Fund. A summary of key achievements and lessons learned from each Joint Programme are included as reported by the Joint Programmes themselves. Key implementation issues and lessons learned are summarized.
This document is designed as a reference guide for UN Country Teams (UNCTs), under the leadership of the UN Resident Coordinators, that wish to support Member States and national stakeholders in adapting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to national contexts (“mainstreaming”) while protecting its integrity. The document covers eight implementation guidance areas that can serve as the basis for UNCT assistance at the national level, sub-national and local levels.
In view of its interconnectedness, the new agenda of SDGs will require holistic approaches and coherent action by global, regional and country level actors. In order to ensure interlinkages between the regional and country levels, the ECA Regional UNDG Team undertook a consultation with ECA UN Resident Coordinators (RCs) and Country Teams (UNCT) through a survey to identify needs and requirements at country level with regard to SDG implementation. This document presents the finding of the survey as well as conclusions drawn.
With the growing call for the UN development system to go beyond business-as-usual coordination and rise to the challenge to support implementation of the more ambitious and integrated 2030 Agenda, United Nations Development Operations and Coordination Office (UNDOCO) has reviewed the data and practice evidence, as well as the policy and resource mechanisms at its disposal, and established the Delivering Together Facility for Sustainable Development (DTF), to be operational in 2017. The DTF is set up as a flexible funding mechanism to provide seed funds to RCs and UNCTs, to help them leverage joined-up UN development system’s efforts in support of Member States implementing the 2030 Agenda.
This document presents the design features, strategic framework, implementation arrangements and fund management of the DTF, which will become operational in 2017.
The “supremely ambitious and transformative vision” embodied in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a goal to achieve gender equality for all women and girls and a re-commitment to governments’ human rights obligations. At the same time, governments have agreed to a range of strategies for financing the Agenda that arguably undermine their ability to fulfil women’s human rights and advance a just and gender-equitable model of development.
This paper critically evaluates this potential contradiction with a focus on the key financing strategies of trade and investment liberalization, sovereign debt resolution, international private finance, and public-private partnerships, as well as the role of the global partnership for development. Recommendations are made to better align financing targets with the objective of supporting the enjoyment of women’s human rights. Finally, the paper reflects on the inherent limitations in the 2030 Agenda and the need for an urgent shift to a model of development justice.
This paper identifies a series of macro-level tools to create a supportive environment and generate the resources to promote the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to gender equality. The paper argues that financing for gender equality can be self-sustaining because of the feedback effects from gender equality to economy-wide well-being.
Among the tools related to targeted government spending are demand-stimulating macroeconomic policies to promote full employment and public investment. Two types of public investment are explored. Physical infrastructure investment, such as spending on clean water, sanitation and health clinics, can reduce women’s unpaid care burden. Social infrastructure investment, defined as investment in people’s capabilities, refers to the fundamental social, intellectual, and emotional skills, and health of individuals—or level of human development—a country relies on for its economy to function. Financing for gender equality in these areas is more properly seen as an investment that yields an income stream in the future due to the beneficial development and growth effects. The paper concludes by arguing to advance the SDGs, macroeconomic policy must be conducted through an equity lens with much more attention to its distributive effects.
How trade liberalization affects women’s position in the labour market and what role public policy should play to make the process work better for women are among some of the most debated issues in academic communities and in policy-making arenas. This paper sheds light on these contentious issues by analysing the trends in labour market outcomes of women and men in China in the decade after its accession to the World Trade Organization.
Using data from the 2002 China Household Income Project and the 2008 and 2010 Rural-Urban Migration in China project, the analysis shows that between 2002 and 2010, women’s labour force participation increased and rising women’s labour force participation was associated with a dramatic shift in labour allocation from agricultural labour to wage employment in industry and services. Moreover, women and men at all income quintiles experienced rapid wage growth. However, the benefits of economic success following the WTO succession were not evenly distributed between both women and men. The gender gaps in both earnings and low pay-rates actually increased. The paper concludes by noting that despite China's remarkable success in creating productive employment and reducing income poverty, economic growth alone is insufficient for achieving gender equality in the labour market.
The achievement of substantive equality is understood as having four dimensions: redressing disadvantage; countering stigma, prejudice, humiliation and violence; transforming social and institutional structures; and facilitating political participation and social inclusion. The paper shows that, although not articulated in this way, these dimensions are clearly visible in the application by the various interpretive bodies of the principles of equality to the enjoyment of treaty rights. At the same time, it shows that there are important ways in which these bodies could go further, both in articulating the goals of substantive equality and in applying them when assessing compliance by States with international obligations of equality. The substantive equality approach, in its four-dimensional form, provides an evaluative tool with which to assess policy in relation to the right to gender equality. The paper elaborates on the four-dimensional approach to equality and how it can be used to evaluate the impact of social and economic policies on women to determine how to make the economy 'work for women' and advance gender equality. The paper suggests that there is a growing consensus at the international level on an understanding of substantive equality that reflects the four dimensional framework.
This paper provides an in-depth analysis of trends in labour market outcomes of women in India based on unit level data sets of employment and unemployment surveys undertaken in 1999-2000, 2004-2005, and 2011-2012. The paper analyzes the gender differentials that exist in the employment status of women and men despite the existence of legal and policy framework for the empowerment of women in the country.
The research finds that the labour force participate rates of women are not only less than half of those of men, but also declined in 2011-2012. Age, marital status, presence of children, socio-religious status, area of residence, level of education and relative affluence of households are some of the determinants of labour force participation of women and men in India.