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The economics of greenhouse gas mitigation in developing Asia

This study uses an economy–energy–climate model to assess the long-term effects of Paris Agreement pledges on developing Asia, in comparison with business as usual and more ambitious scenarios to limit warming to 2°C. It finds potential for modest macroeconomic costs of ambitious mitigation, but that clean energy investment needs are substantial. When costs, benefits of avoided climate change, and cobenefits are considered together, investment in mitigation policy is found to have substantial economic returns for the region—if action is taken rapidly and international carbon market mechanisms are implemented to allow mitigation to occur where it is least costly.

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The development economics of landlockedness

The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of landlockedness on the development prospects of Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs). In particular the study assesses the impact of landlockedness on the overall development performance of LLDCs on a large number of economic, institutional, and social indicators; empirically estimates the development cost of being landlocked using an econometric approach; and based on the findings, proposes recommendations that can provide a more holistic strategy to the development of LLDCs. The distinctive feature of the econometric approach used is that it does not limit landlockedness to affect income (or economic growth) through its effect on trade. The logic underlying the modelling approach is that landlockedness can affect both economic and non-economic dimensions of development and that these development effects can be transmitted through several channels that include international trade and quality of institutions.

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The impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on the development prospects of Landlocked Developing Countries

This study seeks to identify Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs)’ priority areas on climate change, land degradation and desertification that could be included in their new development agenda. In order to achieve this objective, the study: (a) provides a comprehensive review of the impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on LLDCs, (b) reviews national, regional and international interventions which have been implemented in LLDCs; (c) identifies best practices, lessons learnt and emerging opportunities and (d) proffers recommendations for inclusion in a new development agenda for LLDCs which will assist them to ameliorate the negative impacts of climate change, desertification and land degradation.

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State of the Least Developed Countries 2016

The current report builds on the first and second editions, which considered the issues of productive capacity building as well as extreme poverty eradication in the least developed countries (LDCs) and the post-2015 development agenda. These reports provided analysis relating to the inclusion of LDC issues in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. This year’s report is dedicated to the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs using synergies with the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA). Part 1 of the report assesses progress towards achieving the goals and targets of the IPoA, particularly in the eight priority areas; reviews efforts towards this end; and identifies challenges ahead. The report argues that enhanced, coordinated and targeted support to the LDCs fulfilling ODA commitments but also going beyond, will remain critical to effectively implementing the IPoA. Part 2 of the report assesses the complementarities of the IPoA and the 2030 Agenda. It maps the goals, targets and actions of the IPoA with the SDGs, focusing on means of implementation. Furthermore it looks at how the implementation of the SDGs in LDCs can be fostered, including its mainstreaming and monitoring and followup. The conclusions and policy recommendations cover the findings in both parts of the report. As the report finds significant synergies between the IPoA and the Agenda 2030 it highlights the importance of leadership and political will and effective global partnership.

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Supporting vulnerable countries on their path to poverty eradication and prosperity

From the General Assembly in 1971 that established the LDC status, to the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, this brochure will highlight the evolution of the different international mandates supporting the UN’s most vulnerable countries, and UNIDO’s intervention within them, taking into account previous achievements and unmet challenges. The brochure concludes with a discussion of the future path for these countries, emphasizing issues that development strategies must address in order to reach their goal of poverty eradication and increased prosperity. Effort is being made to highlight selected UNIDO interventions, however the mentions in this brochure are non-exhaustive.

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Guide on gender mainstreaming: agribusiness development projects

By systematically mainstreaming gender into its interventions, UNIDO’s Agribusiness Development Branch (AGR) can ensure equal opportunities for women and men, thus furthering UNIDO’s Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (ISID) agenda and contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the post-2015 development framework. This guide showcases UNIDO’s work in the area of Agribusiness development and gender mainstreaming. The Guide is divided into six chapters and is meant to be read in its entirety. The first two chapters cover a general background of gender concepts and the gender dimensions of agribusiness development projects, while the remaining chapters provide a step-by step road map of gender mainstreaming in the different stages of the project cycle. Given the wide scope and diversity of the AGR portfolio, the relevance and application of this guide may vary. Therefore, the guide must be considered in view of each individual project’s specificities and applied where appropriate.

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Diagnostics for industrial value chain development

Industrial value chains are complex both in terms of the various segments they cover (from primary materials to consumption), and the impacts that their progress and development can generate. It is in this context that UNIDO’s value chain diagnostics tool aims to provide guidance. The main objective is to draw a complete picture of the chain using a set of diagnostic dimensions, as broad in nature as possible, to describe the current situation in a given context. Once this is established the diagnostics also help to reflect on opportunities and constraints that impact on certain dynamics in the value chain, automatic or induced through governments and development agents.

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Pro-poor value chain development

The aim of this practioner's guide is to assist programme designers and project managers working for governments, development agencies and the private sector alike, in designing and implementing projects for the development of agricultural and agro-industrial value chains. It addresses two challenges in particular: a. Making transformation and value addition processes integral to value chain development, in addition to primary agricultural production and marketing; and b. Overcoming difficulties of designing value chain development initiatives that focus on social benefits, especially poverty reduction and gender equity.

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Industrial Development Report 2016: the role of technology and innovation in inclusive and sustainable industrial development

This report addresses a challenging question: under which conditions do technology and innovation achieve inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID)? The main finding of this report is that technology can simultaneously serve all three dimensions of sustainability. Rapid inclusive and sustainable industrialization can be achieved provided that policymakers resolutely facilitate and steer the industrialization process, which requires sound policies and avoiding the mistakes other countries have made in the past.

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The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: achieving the industry-related goals and targets

UNIDO’s vision to address today’s economic, social and environmental challenges is enshrined in the Lima Declaration, which was adopted by UNIDO Member States in December 2013. On this basis, the Organization pursues Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (ISID) to harness industry’s full potential to contribute to lasting prosperity for all. The mandate is based on the recognition by Member States that poverty eradication “can only be achieved through strong, inclusive, sustainable and resilient economic and industrial growth, and the effective integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.” The present document summarizes the contribution of UNIDO’s mandate as well as current and planned future activities vis-à-vis the SDGs, with a special focus on SDG-9, which highlights and affirms the critical importance of ISID and its contribution to all 17 goals.

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Leaving no one behind: report on the World Social Situation 2016

Despite unprecedented social progress around the world, many people continue to face social exclusion and limited access to social, economic and political opportunities. This report examines the social, economic and political disadvantages that some groups of the population face, namely youth, older persons, ethnic minorities, indigenous peoples, migrants and persons with disabilities. It also makes policy recommendations to help governments overcome development hurdles and address barriers that limit people’s access to opportunities.

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Investment by TNCs and gender: preliminary assessment and way forward

Through their activities in foreign direct investment (FDI) -- trade, non-equity modalities and business relationships with local suppliers -- transnational corporations (TNCs) have significant gender-specific impacts in developing countries. This report is a preliminary assessment of this impact. It focuses mainly on gender equality, spanning the wage and employment impact of TNCs, and the related potential for women's empowerment. Based on the analysis presented, the report proposes three key policy recommendations for governments.

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The business of BioTrade: using biological resources sustainably and responsibly

BioTrade refers to the collection, production, transformation, and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity (species and ecosystems) under the criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability. To give fuller meaning to this concept, UNCTAD, together with international partners and practitioners at country level, has defined seven BioTrade principles. This informational paper explores how the efforts of the BioTrade Initiative provide incentives for business to conserve biodiversity through using biological resources sustainably and responsibly. Through a review and assessment of distinct case studies, it identifies the actual, practical, bottom-up incentives generated by BioTrade partners and practitioners.

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Investment guide to the Silk Road

In 2013 the World Bank identified the Silk Road countries as one of the regions that has made the most progress in improving the ease of doing business. A network of investment treaties and double taxation agreements also signals the increasing openness of the region to international investment. This guide provides potential investors with information on the Silk Road to illustrate the various investment opportunities in Central Asia, and familiarize themselves with the region. Chapter I introduces the region and individual economies, and summarizes the extensive history of the Silk Road, from its ancient prosperity to its current revival. Chapter II provides the reader with information about the economic conditions of each country and the region as a whole. Chapter III outlines investment opportunities in selected sectors in the Silk Road countries. The Appendices provide brief overviews of the investment regulatory framework in each of the Silk Road countries.

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Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Lesotho? A gender perspective

Though important gender gaps persist in a number of critical areas, the experience of Lesotho highlights that the political resolve to promote gender equality is not, and should not be, a monopoly of high-income countries. Even those countries qualified as least developed countries (LDCs) can ambitiously adopt and implement strategies and policies aimed at reducing gender-based disparities. The Lesotho case study highlights the multifaceted relationship between trade policy on the one hand, structural changes and productive transformation on the other, and their repercussions on patterns of employment for men and women. In particular, the rise – and subsequent relative decline – of Lesotho as a major apparel exporter to the United States illustrates clearly the strong correlation between trade policy, structural change in the economy, and shifting gender patterns.

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Non-tariff measures to trade: economic and policy issues for developing countries

This study contributes to a better understanding of the implications of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) for developing countries in two regards. First, it provides an analysis of the utilization, methods of quantification and impacts of NTMs. These issues are discussed in sections I, II and III. Secondly, the study also illustrates some aspects of NTMs and the policy responses Governments and the international community might deploy to address some of the issues related to NTMs. These issues are presented in sections IV, V and VI. As a whole, this study brings two main messages to trade analysts and policymakers in regard to NTMs. The first is that, given their importance but the still limited understanding of them, further research and analysis are required. The second is that a multilateral policymaking process, although difficult, is critical to minimizing their distortionary and discriminatory effects.

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The Palestinian economy in East Jerusalem: enduring annexation, isolation and disintegration

International organizations and Israeli and Palestinian non-governmental organizations have published reports and studies in recent years on East Jerusalem focused mainly on political and social conditions. But few have examined its economy, which is generally considered to follow the overall trend of the West Bank economy and is represented statistically as part of it. Be that as it may, East Jerusalem’s economy, like other features of its society, culture and landscape, is also shaped by factors unique to its particular experience in the face of Israeli occupation and settlement. This report aims to explore these hitherto neglected issues within the context of the secretariat’s continuing assessment of the economic development prospects of the occupied Palestinian territory and obstacles to trade and development, and with a view to alleviating the adverse economic and social conditions imposed on the Palestinian people, as called for by the Doha Mandate.

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The way to the ocean: transit corridors servicing the trade of landlocked developing countries

The present paper looks at selected East African transit corridors which provide access to seaports as gateways to link landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) with overseas trading partners. The report suggests three complementary courses of action to improve transit transport efficiency and sustainability: 1) Building institutional capacity through corridor management arrangements, including formal agreements, where and as appropriate; 2) Improving the reliability and predictability of transit operations by trust-building measures between public regulators and private operators, such as risk-management customs systems, which allow for fewer en route checks, shorter delays and smaller convoys; 3) Developing and operating transport nodes, or freight hubs, with a particular focus on the consolidation of small flows, to create critical masses required to achieve economies of scale, higher return on investment on both infrastructure and transport services, and lead to the development of effective intermodal transit operations.

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Trade remedies: targeting the renewable energy sector

The study and the meeting are part of a larger effort by UNCTAD to analyse issues arising at the interface of trade policy and green economy, more specifically renewables, which is shorthand for goods and services used in conjunction with renewable energy sources. There can be little doubt that trade remedies are a sensitive area. Trade remedies may have a significant effect on value and job creation throughout the supply chain as a whole. Trade remedies are bound to have competitive implications. Trade remedies against renewables provide a counterpoint to the initiative to reduce tariffs on environmental goods, particularly since some of the most active users of trade remedies participate in the initiative. Trade remedies shatter the alliances among interest groups. On the dispute settlement front, clearly what we see there is disputes on trade remedies that happen to involve renewables rather than disputes about renewables that happen to involve trade remedies. These disputes are about how trade remedies work and in many ways are a continuation of discussion and negotiations that have been going on for the past 12 -13 years about issues such as public interest test, lesser duty etc., which suddenly become relevant again in the context of renewables. The study is far from an exhaustive examination of these issues, of course. In many areas, the analysis is speculative, aimed at raising questions and suggesting areas where policy makers and analysts may need to consider undertaking further analysis.

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The fisheries sector in the Gambia: trade, value addition and social inclusiveness, with a focus on women

This analytical report - part of UNCTAD’s activities on trade, gender and development - is intended to accompany the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) Update for 'The Gambia: Harnessing Trade for Growth and Employment', carried out under the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for trade-related assistance for Least Developed Countries. It sets out a detailed analysis of the fisheries sector and its prospects for value-addition and social inclusiveness, with a focus on women. The intention is to capture all the information generated through the DTIS Update process, and disseminate this knowledge to a broader audience.

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Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Angola? A gender perspective

The study seeks to explore the impacts of Angola's integration into the world economy mainly as an oil exporter, and in particular, to analyse whether there is a gender bias in the effects of trade. The findings suggest that the extractive nature of Angola's economy has significantly constrained its diversification potential, and has limited the development of productive activities that could absorb the female workforce and provide women with decent incomes. Moreover, a defining characteristic of the Angolan labour market is the size of the informal sector, which is proportionately one of the largest in the developing world. This sector provides the main occupation for 70 per cent of the female population in the country. This UNCTAD study takes a close look at the role of women in Angola's economy and society as it attempts to answer the following questions: What strategies could be put in place to address the potential exclusionary effects of Angola's trade liberalization? How can women take advantage of the positive spillovers from Angola's extractive economy and ultimately benefit from trade? What kind of sectoral policies can be promoted in order to generate new opportunities for women and have them benefit more from the booming economy?

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The oceans economy: opportunities and challenges for Small Island Developing States

This report underlines the importance of sustainable oceanic activities for the development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and other coastal states. Both opportunities and challenges for SIDS are identified in existing and emerging trade-related sectors such as sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, renewable marine energy, marine bio-prospecting, maritime transport and marine and coastal tourism. It also points at the need to consider the formation of regional economic groupings that combine their "economic exclusive zones" under a common oceans economic space in order to be able to seize, manage and sustainably use joint resources and build common infrastructures.

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Studies in technology transfer: selected cases from Argentina, China, South Africa and Taiwan Province of China

This paper builds on ongoing efforts by UNCTAD to investigate the role of the transfer of technology in economic development. The paper examines the role of technology transfer in the development of integrated circuits production in Taiwan Province of China, button manufacturing in Qiaotou, China, auto-mobile manufacturing in South Africa and biotechnology development in Argentina. The cases therefore cover high-technology activities (integrated circuits and biotechnology), medium-technology activities (auto-mobiles) and low-technology activities (buttons). It is hoped that this approach illustrates the potential for technology transfer to play a role in activities of widely differing knowledge, technology and skill intensities. These cases represent varying degrees of success in the leveraging of technology transfer and local capability development for industrial development in developing economies.

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Trade policy framework: Jamaica

The ongoing review of Jamaica’s trade policy is motivated by the Government’s assessment that the country’ trade has underperformed over the last 20 years. This underperformance is characterized by limited export growth and increased imports, as well as continued dependence on a few export products that have lost competitiveness in recent times and developed country markets that have been greatly affected by the financial crisis.This Trade Policy Framework was prepared at the request of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica. It provides a review of the country’s overall national development objectives and recent economic trends, an analysis of linkages between existing strategies and plans in different spheres of policymaking and trade policy in both the goods and services sectors, and recommendations for integrated strategic approaches to achieving the country’s key vision and objectives for its trade policy.

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Closing the distance: partnerships for sustainable and resilient transport systems in Small Island Developing States

This report informs about the maritime transport situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and underscores the strategic importance of this economic sector for SIDS economies and communities. It provides an overview of the maritime transport situation in SIDS and presents data on relevant aspects, including shipping connectivity levels, direct and indirect shipping services, port issues, as well as trade structure and patterns. Relevant cross-cutting concerns such as SIDS high dependency on fossil fuel energy imports, exposure to climate change impacts and natural disasters as well as financial and human capacity constraints are also addressed. The report points to relevant opportunities which could be capitalised upon to support SIDS sustainable development and “blue growth”. Finally, the report concludes with a number of suggestions and recommendations for the way forward.

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