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Joint programme synthesis II: MDG-F theme: democratic and economic governance

This report provides a synthesis overview of achievements, lessons learned and the contribution towards the joint programmes (JPs) of the MDG Achievement Fund's (MDG-F) thematic window entitled Democratic and Economic Governance (DEG). The MDG-F's water and sanitation programmes have worked with regulatory reforms and capacity development for improved services at both national and local levels, and striven to direct investments towards disadvantaged regions. Citizen awareness, participation, gender equality and the inclusion of marginalised populations, are important concerns that have been emphasised by the programmes.This DEG Knowledge Management (KM) programme report provides an overview of the successes and lessons learned, and a discussion of the joint contribution of DEG programmes towards the MDG target on water and sanitation.

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Analysis of Supreme Court water related cases in the Philippines (1901 - 2010) and policy recommendations

This analysis contributed to a three year joint programme (JP) entitled “Enhancing Access to and Provision of Water Services with the Active Participation of the Poor” in the Philippines. The JP aimed to enhance provision of and access to water services of poor communities by filling in gaps in existing water supply delivery programs. The main output of this project is a digest on jurisprudence in the water supply sector which includes: a) a compilation of relevant Supreme Court decision from 1901 to 2010; and b) a summary of those decisions. The nature of the cases included involve aspects of the water supply sector, including but not limited to, source allocation, investment, operation and regulation, household wastewater and sanitation.

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An evidence-based review of MDG-F experiences: a contribution to the QCPR process

This document was prepared by the MDG-F in 2012 to systemize its experience to date in joint programming and implementation through its 130 joint programmes in 50 countries across five regions in eight thematic areas. The document includes evidence based lessons and good practices on issues closely related to those that were discussed during the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review (QCPR), with the goal of contributing to this QCPR process. These issues include: 1. The coherence, effectiveness, relevance, and efficiency of development programmes; 2. National ownership of development processes and results; 3. Capacity development and sustainability of development results; and 4. Mutual accountability.

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The access in water supply and sewerage in the informal urban settlements and rural areas in five districts of Albania

This document presents an assessment on the access to water and wastewater services in 29 communes which are outside the service coverage areas of the Water and Wastewater Companies. The objective of the study is to help Albania to adapt the laws and standards regarding water and wastewater services and consumer protection best practices as exercised in other countries of the European Union (EU). The document includes a general overview of the situation, the results from a mini-survey and the focus groups’ meetings as well as a review of the strategic documents. The study gives recommendations for improving access to water supply and wastewater services in the informal settlements of the city and in the rural areas

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National study on the customer services of the Albanian water utility companies

This Report has been prepared to assist the Water Regulatory Authority of Albania to assess the level of Customer Services as compared to international best practice in order to improve Customer Services in the water utilities. This innovative study describes the situation of the Water Utilities in Albania from the customer’s point of view placing his issues and concerns central to the decision making process. The study focuses on seven functional areas that generally water supply and sewerage utilities aggregate under the category of Customer Service. Conclusions and recommendations of the report highlight the need of improving relations with customer and putting the customers at the center of the companies’ strategies translating this into qualified and trained customer centered staff, coordination with Local Government Shareholders and commitment of resources of the companies.

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Water supply study, Rudo

Rudo Municipality is situated on the border triangle of Bosnia and Herzegovina, The Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro. This report has four main objectives: 1) provide a current situation analysis of the water supply system of Rudo as well as an analysis of development projects, studies, project solutions and harmonization of development of water supply systems with development plans and projects, 2) draft a water supply master plan for partner municipalities, 3) prioritize a plan of investment measures for a period of 10 years, and 4) conduct a feasibility study for priority investment measures

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Review of the national government- local government cost-sharing policy for water supply and sanitation in the Philippines

This study reviewed the National Government (NG) - Local Government Unit (LGU) cost-sharing policy specifically for water and sanitation. It looked at current experiences at national and international levels in cost-sharing arrangements and assessed its effectiveness with the end view of recommending relevant amendments to the existing policy and practice of cost-sharing. This review focuses on how to balance limited social subsidies with better accountability and responsibility. It concludes with recommendations on the governance framework and implementation of cost-sharing policy as well as on the cost-sharing policy and mix between grants and local counterparts.

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Strengthening economic regulation to enhance water service delivery performance in the Philippines

This study reviewed the Philippines’ current regulatory framework and practices that have an impact on investment flows and the performance of water service providers (WSPs) and was designed to facilitate the development of a framework for light-handed regulation (LHR) and the adjustment of the existing tariff-setting methodology of the National Water Resources Board to cater to the unregulated WSPs. This study categorized WSPs nationwide, formulated a framework for LHR and put forward policy recommendations and implementation guidelines for consideration of the National Water Resources Board.

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Operationalizing the rights based local WatSan governance framework in the Philippines: Vol II

One of the key targets of the the MDG Achievement Fund (MDG-F) Joint Programme (JP) in the Philippines was the development of capacities at the local level that will enable enhanced access to and provision of water services. While Volume I of the Handbook is aimed at providing the basic concepts and principles of human rights based local Water and Sanitation (WatSan) governance, Volume II was developed to provide a practical guide to the LGU, the community and water service providers (WSPs) on how to operationalize the framework. For the LGU as the Duty Bearer, the Handbook is a step-by-step guide on how to comply in fulfilling the obligation to realize the target of guaranteeing the provision of safe, available, affordable and acceptable water to the most vulnerable sectors of the community. This publication presents the processes that will be undergone by the different water governance actors following a human rights-based approach.

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Incentive mechanisms and partnership modalities for water supply provision for the poor in the Philippines

This study took stock of the existing policies, laws, issuances and rules and regulations that affect the level of investment at the local level, characterized by water service providers, from either public or private entities. It produced a compendium of partnerships and incentive modalities that may be applied in water-less and rural areas, a framework for implementation of incentive and partnerships on the provision of water services for the poor, and a proposed action plan for its implementation.

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Concepts and challenges of human rights based, local WatSan governance in the Philippines

The lack of access to sufficient, acceptable, and affordable water and sanitation is deeply rooted in poverty, weak governance, power imbalance, and discrimination that directly impacts the lives of persons living in poverty and denies them a most basic human right: the right to water. This “Handbook” on a Human Rights Based Approach to Local WatSan Governance presents a framework to support the realization of the right to water and sanitation, and consequently, other fundamental rights in the Philippines. It is divided into 2 sections that provide an introduction to human rights based local WatSan governance and helps the practitioner understand the challenges implicit in it.

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Integrated policy paper for pro-poor water supply and sanitation in the Philippines

The recognition of the human right to water supply and sanitation implies that the state accepts its responsibility to respect, protect and fulfill this right. For about 18 million Filipinos that do not have access to safe water and for the 10 million Filipinos that still defecate in the open, the ability to exercise this right is constrained by the limited ability of national and local government to provide the resources required to satisfy this right. The policy reforms mentioned in this summary cover a range of concerns including, but not limited to institutional arrangements, revisiting the targeting approach, financing, NG-LGU cost-sharing, economic regulation, incentives and partnership arrangements and others. This paper also highlights recommendations on the policy reforms and changes required in the implementation of these concerns and identifies possible strategies to scale up rural water supply services within the context of the emerging Philippine Water Resources Sector Development Plan and the SALINTUBIG Program.

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Policy brief for climate change adaptation for the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation in Egypt

Egypt is an arid country relying on the Nile River which provides 95% of its water resources and is suffering water stress due to limited supplies and growing populations, and increased competition on water from the upper Nile basin countries. There is significant pressure on water resources in Egypt to support the basic needs of the population, industry and agriculture production. This document provides a list of major policies that should be considered in addressing these problems.

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Assessment of direct and indirect impacts of climate change scenarios on water availability and quality in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

The study aims to help optimize the water allocation in the Zarqa River Basin. In the future, more wastewater will be produced and more treated wastewater is expected to be used due to the increasing population and the increased connection rate and rehabilitation and expansion of the existing treatment plants. This study articulates the links between water input alternatives, their availability and other input choices to produce output, and identifies the best or optimal input strategies or the profit maximizing production path that could be followed by firms. In effect, it identifies the most efficient water utilizing options by the production sectors in terms of GDP maximization.

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Micro-level assessment of potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on socio-economic factors in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

The Zarqa basin is considered the most important basin in Jordan because it hosts about 70% of the industrial activities and about 50% of the population of the country reside on it. This study focuses on the competitiveness of water use in agriculture and other sectors and use of water of different quality. Also this study evaluates and assesses the different scenarios of water availability and quality – as a consequence of climate change in the region - depending on economic and social aspects.To simulate the complexity of the system, a base line scenario was built using the Water Resources Model (WRM). This scenario has been tested to reflect the expectation of the impact of climate change in the future.

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Assessment of treated wastewater quality under different climate change scenarios in Jordan

This assessment was part of a larger project that aimed to address wastewater quality and soil irrigated with wastewater to provide support to Jordan’s national strategies and action plans for sustainable management of its natural resources, reducing poverty, and enhancing health indicators. There were 3 main objectives to this assessment: 1) Determine the impact of using wastewater under different climatic conditions on pollutants residue in soil and the impact of different climate on wastewater quality, 2) Define the impacts of global climatic change on soil properties and seepage water quality using inorganic and organic contaminants of the irrigation water quality, and 3) Define the microbial activities under different climatic conditions.

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Assessment of direct and indirect impacts of climate change scenarios of water availability and quality in the Zarqa river basin in Jordan

The Zarqa River Basin is the second main tributary to River Jordan after Yarmouk River Basin, and thus one of the most significant basins in the country with respect to its economical, social and agricultural importance. This project aimed to strengthen adaptive capacity for health protection and food security to climate change under water scarcity conditions. This report provides the results of extensive statistical analysis that helped identify the expected impact of climate change on surface water availability, water quality and the impact on groundwater. Its estimates on future levels of precipitation and temperatures are given as well as recommendations to State officials for conducting future studies as well as an emphasis on the need to prioritize climate adaptation strategies despite its potential costs.

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Final report on Identify and screen adaptation measures to reduce climate change impacts on food productivity in Jordan

This study was conducted in the context of the UN/FAO activities for helping developing countries make progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These goals include reduction of poverty rates (MDG1), achieving adults literacy rates (MDG2), infant mortality rate (MDG4), access to water and to sanitation (MDG7). However, these achievements are undermined by the crippling water scarcity and aggravated by climate change, thus bringing about additional threats to health, food security, productivity and human security. The purpose of this study is to identify and screen adaptation measures to reduce climate change impacts on food productivity in Jordan. It begins with a review and evaluation of suitable measures that are applicable to Jordan, creates a baseline scenario and an adaptation scenario, and recommends appropriate measures based on lessons learned from previous interventions and the goals laid out in the adaptation scenario.

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Review evidence on minimum household water security requirements for health protection in Jordan

Identifying minimum water requirements for health protection is a very important concern, in particular to health authorities in Jordan, to avoid human suffering and distress. The relation between minimum water quantity and the health inside the household is not well established and affected by some confounding variables. This report aimed to determine more precisely, via a comprehensive review of literature and studies on this subject, what the relationship between water quantity and health is.

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Farm operations monitoring manuals for climate change adaptation in the Philippines

This assessment was part of a larger project that aimed to address wastewater quality and soil irrigated with wastewater to provide support to national strategies and action plans for sustainable management of its natural resources, reducing poverty, and enhancing health indicators. There were 3 main objectives to this assessment: 1) Determine the impact of using wastewater under different climatic conditions on pollutants residue in soil and the impact of different climate on wastewater quality, 2) Define the impacts of global climatic change on soil properties and seepage water quality using inorganic and organic contaminants of the irrigation water quality, and 3) Define the microbial activities under different climatic conditions.

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Joint programme synthesis: MDG-F theme, democratic and economic governance

This report of the provides a synthesis overview of contexts, goals, strategies, cross-cutting themes and common concerns of the Joint Programmes (JPs) of the MDG Achievement Fund's (MDG-F) thematic window entitled Democratic and Economic Governance (DEG). The 11 JPs aimed to democratize access to utility services and to improve the governance in the water and sanitation sectors. The overarching goal is to accelerate progress worldwide towards achieving the MDG water and sanitation target.

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Water supply study, Kladanj

Kladanj Municipality lies in the Drinjaca river valley along the Zupanja-Tuzla-Sarajevo road in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This report has four main objectives: 1) provide a current situation analysis of the water supply system of Kladanj as well as an analysis of development projects, studies, project solutions and harmonization of development of water supply systems with development plans and projects, 2) draft a water supply master plan for partner municipalities, 3) prioritize a plan of investment measures for a period of 10 years, and 4) conduct a feasibility study for priority investment measures.

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Water supply study, Gracanica

Municipality Gracanica lies in the north-eastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This report has four main objectives: 1) provide a current situation analysis of the water supply system of Gracanica as well as an analysis of development projects, studies, project solutions and harmonization of development of water supply systems with development plans and projects, 2) draft a water supply master plan for partner municipalities, 3) prioritize a plan of investment measures for a period of 10 years, and 4) conduct a feasibility study for priority investment measures.

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Review of MDG-F joint programmes: key findings and achievements

The review presents the key findings and achievements of the 130 joint programmes across 50 countries supported by the MDG Achievement Fund (MDG-F) covering eight thematic areas: children, food security and nutrition; youth employment and migration; culture and development; gender equity and women’s empowerment; private sector and development; conflict prevention and peace building; environment and climate change; and democratic economic governance.

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Democratic economic governance: thematic study, full report

This report presents the key findings and achievements of the 11 Joint Programmes of the Democratic Economic Governance theme of the Millennium Development Achievement Fund (MDG-F) that aimed to democratize access to utility services and to improve governance in the water and sanitation sectors. The overarching goal of the Joint programmes was to accelerate progress worldwide towards achieving the MDG water and sanitation targets. Specifically, the programmes contributed to meeting the MDG7 target to halve the proportion of the population lacking sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015.

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